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Table 3 Identification of risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injuries (3rd or 4th degree perineal tear)

From: Evaluation of Suzor forceps training by studying obstetric anal sphincter injuries: a retrospective study

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Resident’s experience:
 Resident who performed fewer than 24 forceps deliveries 0.0041
 Resident who completed fewer than 2.36 semesters of experience practicing instrumental deliveries 0.0007
Obstetrical factors:
 Protective effect of episiotomy < 0.0001
 Posterior presentation 0.028
 Progression of the fetus during the fitting of the first instrument 0.196
 Induced labor 0.98
 Indication of the operative delivery 0.12
Maternal factors:
 Protective effect of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) 0.0013
 Scarred uterus 0.97
 Primiparity 0.18
Fetal factors:
 Cranial perimeter < 330 mm 0.03
 Fetal macrosomia (≥ 4000 g) 0.10
 Post-term delivery (≥ 41 weeks of gestation) 0.17