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Table 2 Individual-level validation in exit survey report of Chlorhexidine cord-application, EN-BIRTH study (n = 6748)

From: Chlorhexidine for facility-based umbilical cord care: EN-BIRTH multi-country validation study

  Azimpur (BD)
Tertiary
Kushtia (BD)
District
Pokhara (NP)
Regional
Pooled
(Random effects)
N (%) (CI) N (%) (CI) N (%) (CI) N% (CI)
Exit-survey denominator 2826 live births 2253 live births 6748 live births  
All modes of birth combined
 Observer prevalence % 2582 (89.3)   2257 (97.9)   7112 (99.4)   96.6 (88.8, 99.9)
 Survey-reported prevalence % 12 (0.4) 840 (37.3) 604 (9) 11..3 (0.3, 34.6)
 Don’t know responses % 2189 (77.5) 1251 (55.5) 5355 (79.4) 71.5 (57.3, 83.7)
INCLUDES DON’T KNOW AS NO
 10 Cell Counts No   Yes   No    
 % agreement 11.0 38.4 9.5 18.1 (5.5, 35.9)
 Sensitivity ** ** 37.7 (35.6, 39.7) ** ** 11.5 (0.3, 34.9)
 Specificity ** ** 71.7 (56.5, 84) ** ** 93.0 (66.0, 100.0)
EXCLUDES DON’T KNOW
  > 10 Cell Counts No   No   No    
 % agreement 11.5   83.7   44.2   45.8 (10.0, 84.3)
 Sensitivity 2.1 (1.1, 3.6) 84.7 (82.3, 86.9) 44.1 (41.4, 46.8) 39.7 (2.7, 86.7)
 Specificity 100 (94.1, 100) 23.5 (6.8, 49.9) 60 (14.7, 94.7) 70 (3.2, 100)
Vaginal births
 Observer prevalence % 731 (96.3)   1290 (96.5)   6075 (99.4)   97.7 (94.4, 99.6)
 Survey-reported prevalence % 4 (0.5) 601 (45.9) 536 (9.3) 13.6 (0.3, 41.7)
 Don’t know responses % 565 (76.5) 629 (48.1) 4508 (78.6) 68.5 (47.9, 85.9)
INCLUDES DON’T KNOW AS NO
  > 10 Cell Counts No   Yes   No    
 % agreement 4.2 47.8 9.9 17.4 (1.6, 4.4)
 Sensitivity ** ** 46.9 (44.1, 49.7) ** ** 13.9 (0.3, 42.5)
 Specificity ** ** 72.7 (57.2, 85) ** ** 91.6 (70.3, 100.0)
EXCLUDES DON’T KNOW
  > 10 Cell Counts No   No   No    
 % agreement 5.2 (2.4, 9.6) 88.2 (85.6, 90.6) 44.4 (41.6, 47.3) 44.4 (7.5, 85.6)
 Sensitivity 2.4 (0.7, 6) 89.8 (87.2, 92) 44.3 (41.5, 47.2) 42.8 (5, 86.8)
 Specificity 100 (47.8, 100) 25 (7.3, 52.4) 60 (14.7, 94.7) 63.2 (11.5, 100)
Caesarean births
 Observer prevalence % 1850 (86.8)   967 (99.8)   1037 (99.2)   97.1 (85.6, 100.0)
 Survey-reported prevalence % 8 (0.4) 239 (25.3) 66 (6.7) 7.9 (0.0, 27.9)
 Don’t know responses % 1624 (77.9) 622 (65.9) 823 (83.7) 76.4 (66.6, 85.0)
INCLUDES DON’T KNOW AS NO
  > 10 Cell Counts No   No   No    
 % agreement 13.4 25.4 7.1 ** **
 Sensitivity ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
 Specificity ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
EXCLUDES DON’T KNOW
  > 10 Cell counts No   No   No    
 % agreement 13.9 (10.9, 17.4) 74.1 (69, 78.8) 42.3 (34, 50.8) 42.4 (7.4, 82.7)
 Sensitivity 2 (0.9, 3.9) 74.4 (69.2, 79.1) 42.3 (34, 50.8) 34.7 (0, 88.4)
 Specificity 100 (93.6, 100) 0 (0, 97.5) 34.7 (0, 88.4)
  1. n = 12,379 observed live births, n = 11,827 live births with survey
  2. ** = result suppressed due to 10 or fewer count per column of two-by-two table
  3. 7.1% Chlorhexidine solution applied to the umbilicus