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Table 1 Characteristics of women by trajectory groups (n = 452)

From: High physical activity and high sedentary behavior increased the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among women with excessive gestational weight gain: a prospective study

Characteristic Trajectory Group p-value
Group 1
(n = 276, 61.1%)
Group 2
(n = 176, 38.9%)
Age at study entry (years) 29.91 ± 4.62 30.45 ± 4.39 0.21
  ≤ 30 161 (58.3) 93 (52.8) 0.48
 31–35 75 (27.2) 56 (31.8)  
  > 35 40 (14.5) 27 (15.4)  
Ethnicity
 Malay 31 (11.2) 20 (11.4) 0.96
 Non-Malay 245 (88.8) 156 (88.6)  
Education level
 Secondary and lower 140 (50.7) 67 (38.1) 0.02*
 STPM/ Matric/ Diploma/ Certificate 86 (31.2) 62 (35.2)  
 Tertiary and above 50 (18.1) 47 (26.7)  
Employment
 Housewife 104 (37.7) 36 (20.5) 0.001**
 Working 172 (62.3) 149 (79.5)  
Household income (RM)a
 Low (<  3860) 191 (69.2) 96 (54.5) 0.01¶**
 Middle (3860–8319) 77 (27.9) 74 (42.0)  
 High (≥ 8320) 8 (2.9) 6 (3.4)  
Obstetrical information
 Gravidity 2.34 ± 1.47 2.67 ± 1.44 0.01*
  1 108 (39.1) 34 (19.3) 0.001**
  2 62 (22.5) 67 (38.1)  
   ≥ 3 106 (38.4) 75 (42.6)  
 Parity 1.09 ± 0.08 1.44 ± 0.09 0.02*
  0 123 (44.6) 40 (22.7) 0.001**
  1–2 116 (42.0) 104 (59.1)  
   ≥ 3 37 (13.4) 32 (18.2)  
History of GDM
 No 262 (94.9) 160 (90.9) 0.09
 Yes 14 (5.1) 16 (9.1)  
Family history of DM
 No 217 (78.6) 127 (72.2) 0.12
 Yes 59 (21.4) 49 (27.8)  
Anthropometric measurements
 Height (m) 1.57 ± 0.06 1.56 ± 0.05 0.10
 Pre-pregnancy weight (kg) 58.22 ± 12.32 58.63 ± 14.14 0.75
 Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 23.76 ± 4.81 24.01 ± 5.12 0.60
  Underweight (<  18.5) 29 (10.5) 19 (10.8) 0.66
  Normal (18.5–24.9) 152 (55.1) 93 (52.8)  
  Overweight (25.0–29.9) 65 (23.6) 38 (21.6)  
  Obese (≥ 30.0) 30 (10.8) 26 (14.8)  
Rate of gestational weight gain (GWG) (kg/week)
 Second trimester 0.39 ± 0.20 0.41 ± 0.26 0.34
  Inadequate 89 (32.2) 54 (30.7) 0.82
  Adequate 93 (33.7) 57 (32.4)  
  Excessive 94 (34.1) 65 (36.9)  
 Total GWG (kg) 11.53 ± 6.14 11.35 ± 5.61 0.75
  Inadequate 104 (38.0) 64 (36.4) 0.64
  Adequate 106 (38.7) 64 (36.4)  
  Excessive 64 (23.3) 48 (27.2)  
Energy intake
 First trimester (kcal/day) 1572 ± 531.91 1583 ± 579.12 0.84
 Second trimester (kcal/day) 1977 ± 687.55 1919 ± 647.29 0.16
Maternal glucose level
 Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
  Gestational weeks at OGTT performed 28.02 ± 0.15 28.01 ± 0.33 0.66
  Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) 4.35 ± 0.57 4.41 ± 0.48 0.55
  2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) (mmol/L) 5.92 ± 1.50 5.98 ± 1.53 0.67
GDM according to MOH criteriab 22 (8.0) 26 (14.8) 0.02*
  1. Note. a 1 USD = RM 4.18 b GDM according to MOH criteria, either of both FPG ≥ 5.6 mmol/l or 2hPG ≥ 7.8 mmol/L
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. **p < 0.001