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Table 2 Comparison of maternal, social, and obstetric characteristics by gestational groups for Black mothers with GDM, N = 8609

From: Preterm birth and nativity among Black women with gestational diabetes in California, 2013–2017: a population-based retrospective cohort study

  <  34 weeks
n = 328
34–36 weeks
n = 820
37–38 weeks
n = 2570
≥39 weeks
n = 4891
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
cOR (95% CI) cOR (95% CI) cOR (95% CI) cOR (95% CI)
p value p value p value p value
Nativity
 US born 292 (89.0) 732 (89.3) 2236 (87.0) 3962 (81.0)
    Reference
 Foreign-Born 36 (11.0) 88 (10.7) 334 (13.0) 929 (19.0)
0.5 (0.4, 0.8) 0.6 (0.4, 0.7) 0.7 (0.7, 0.8)  
0.0006 <  0.0001 <  0.0001  
Maternal Age (years)
 < 24 28 (8.5) 96 (11.7) 312 (12.1) 608 (12.4)
0.7 (0.5, 1.0) 0.9 (0.8, 1.2) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)  
0.0442 0.6070 0.7720  
 24–39 300 (91.5) 721 (87.9) 2255 (87.7) 4279 (87.5)
    Reference
> 40 a a a a
Education (years)
 < 12 33 (10.1) 108 (13.2) 212 (8.3) 439 (9.0)
1.3 (0.8, 1.9) 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 1.0 (0.8, 1.1)  
0.2491 0.0041 0.7607  
 12 85 (25.9) 240 (29.3) 728 (28.3) 1455 (29.8)
    Reference
 > 12 202 (61.6) 449 (54.8) 1550 (60.3) 2824 (57.7)
1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 1.0 (0.8, 1.1) 1.1 (1.0, 1.2)  
0.1413 0.6923 0.1765  
Participation in WIC
 Yes 194 (59.2) 548 (66.8) 1632 (63.5) 3126 (63.9)
0.8 (0.7, 1.0) 1.1 (1.0, 1.3) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)  
0.1077 0.1395 0.7858  
 No 131 (39.9) 268 (32.7) 923 (35.9) 1738 (35.5)
    Reference
Adequacy of prenatal care
 Adequate/adequate plus 252 (76.8) 652 (79.5) 1957 (76.2) 3471 (71.0)
    Reference
 Intermediate 28 (8.5) 53 (6.5) 270 (10.5) 696 (14.2)
0.6 (0.4, 0.8) 0.4 (0.3, 0.6) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)  
0.0050 <  0.0001 <  0.0001  
 Inadequate 31 (9.5) 92 (11.2) 278 (10.8) 582 (11.9)
0.7 (0.5 1.1) 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)  
0.1256 0.1864 0.0886  
Insurance status at birth
 Employer based insurance HMO or PPO 116 (35.4) 284 (34.6) 1011 (39.3) 1905 (39.0)
    Reference
 Medi-Cal or public insurance 191 (58.2) 476 (58.1) 1377 (53.6) 2667 (54.5)
1.2 (0.9, 1.5) 1.2 (1.0, 1.4) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)  
0.1962 0.0391 0.6629  
 Self-pay a 14 (1.7) 24 (0.9) 38 (0.8)
  2.1 (1.2, 3.5) 1.1 (0.7, 1.7)  
  0.0077 0.5937  
 Other 17 (5.2) 46 (5.6) 158 (6.2) 281 (5.8)
1.0 (0.6, 1.7) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 1.0 (0.9, 1.2)  
0.9812 0.6107 0.6622  
Prior PTB
 Yes 34 (10.4) 63 (7.7) 72 (2.8) 76 (1.6)
7.3 (4.8, 11.2) 5.3 (3.7, 7.4) 1.8 (1.3, 2.5)  
<  0.0001 <  0.0001 0.0003  
 No 294 (89.6) 757 (92.3) 2498 (97.2) 4815 (98.5)
    Reference
Preeclampsia
 Yes 122 (37.2) 267 (32.6) 421 (16.4) 304 (6.2)
6.7 (5.3, 8.3) 4.3 (3.8, 5.0) 1.8 (1.6, 2.0)  
<  0.0001 <  0.0001 <  0.0001  
 No 206 (62.8) 553 (67.4) 2149 (83.6) 4587 (93.8)
    Reference
Smoking during pregnancy
 Yes 41 (12.5) 90 (11.0) 228 (8.9) 374 (7.7)
1.7 (1.2, 2.3) 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 1.1 (1.0, 1.3)  
0.0026 0.0029 0.1352  
 No 287 (87.5) 730 (89.0) 2342 (91.1) 4517 (92.4)
    Reference
Body mass index [BMI (kg/m2)]
 < 18.5 a 8 (1.0) 33 (1.3) 77 (1.6)
  0.8 (0.4, 1.5) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4)  
  0.4303 0.9879  
 18.5 to < 25 58 (17.7) 147 (17.9) 438 (17.0) 1026 (21.0)
    Reference
 25 to < 30 69 (21.0) 179 (21.8) 578 (22.5) 1172 (24.0)
1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 1.1 (0.9, 1.3) 1.1 (1.0, 1.2)  
0.8293 0.6170 0.1184  
 30 to < 35 58 (17.7) 178 (21.7) 542 (21.1) 1023 (20.9)
1.0 (0.7, 1.4) 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) 1.2 (1.0, 1.3)  
0.9881 0.1323 0.0228  
 35 to < 40 61 (18.6) 133 (16.2) 408 (15.9) 651 (13.3)
1.6 (1.1, 2.3) 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 1.3 (1.1, 1.4)  
0.0103 0.0114 0.0002  
> 40 53 (16.2) 139 (17.0) 431 (16.8) 679 (13.9)
1.4 (0.9, 2.0) 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)  
0.1114 0.0101 0.0001  
  1. anot presented when n < 5