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Table 3 Three phases of delay (n = 207)

From: A ten year analysis of maternal deaths in a tertiary hospital using the three delays model

Phase of delay Causes N (%)
First phase delay
(82 cases)
(39.6%)
Lack of awareness of obstetric complications 40 (19.3%)
Low status (women not financially empowered and/or non availability of husband). 30 (14.5%)
Uneventful previous home births. 30 (14.5%)
Previous bad experience of health care 20 (9.7%)
Perceived poor quality of care in healthcare facilities 25 (12.1%)
Low family income 28 (13.5%)
Visited TBAs or unexperienced physician. 45 (21.7%)
Long waiting in a healthcare facility 10 (4.8%)
Domestic violence 10 (4.8%)
Second phase delay
(104 cases)
(50.2%)
Late referral to the tertiary hospital 50 (24.2%)
Multiple referrals 39 (18.8%)
Home –Health facility Long distance . 29 (14%)
Lack of a health facility in the area 50 (24.2%)
Poor or inaccessible road conditions. 10 (4.8%)
High costs of transport 5 (2.4%)
Third phase delay
(184 cases)
(88.9%)
Inadequate referral system 100 (48.3%/)
Senior staff unavailable 110 (53.1%)
Shortage of equipment and supplies 60 (29%)
Lack of competence on EmOC in health facilities 110 (53.1%)
Wrong assessment (of risk, diagnosis, treatment) 63 (30.4%)
Lack of treatment guidelines 40 (19.3%)
Shortage of trained staff 67 (32.4%)
Long waiting time before treatment in health facility 14 (6.8%)
  1. TBAs Traditional birth attendants, EmOC Emergency Obstetric Care