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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the sample

From: Electronic cigarettes may not be a “safer alternative” of conventional cigarettes during pregnancy: evidence from the nationally representative PRAMS data

  Complete abstainers (N = 51,430) Exclusive EC users (N = 337) Exclusive CC smokers (N = 3,484) Total (N = 55,251)
Race/ Ethnicity*
 White 24,160 (46.98%) 209 (62.02%) 2,162 (62.06%) 26,531 (48.02%)
 Black 9,220 (17.93%) 43 (12.76%) 595 (17.08%) 9,858 (17.84%)
 Hispanic 10,371 (20.17%) 45 (13.35%) 200 (5.74%) 10,616 (19.21%)
 Others 7,679 (14.93%) 40 (11.87%) 527 (15.13%) 8246 (14.92%)
Age* 27 (27–32) 27 (22–32) 27 (22–32) 27 (27–32)
Educational attainment*
 Less than HS 5,642 (10.97%) 59 (17.51%) 870 (24.97%) 6,571 (11.89%)
 HS graduate 11,520 (22.40%) 123 (36.50%) 1,444 (41.45%) 13,087 (23.69%)
 Some college 15,086 (29.33%) 122 (36.20%) 1,064 (30.54%) 16,272 (29.45%)
 Bachelor or more 19,182 (37.30%) 33 (9.79%) 106 (3.04%) 19,321 (34.97%)
Familial income*
 <$25 k 18,344 (35.67%) 215 (63.80%) 2,517 (72.25%) 21,076 (38.15%)
 $25 k-$50 k 10,459 (20.34%) 68 (20.18%) 614 (17.62%) 11,141 (20.16%)
 $50 k-$75 k 7,078 (13.76%) 29 (8.61%) 231 (6.63%) 7,338 (13.28%)
 >$75 k 15,549 (30.23%) 25 (7.42%) 122 (3.50%) 15,696 (28.41%)
Adequate prenatal care* 40.269 (78.3%) 236 (70.03%) 2,294 (65.84%) 42,799 (77.46%)
First trimester CC smoking* 1,011 (1.97%) 46 (13.65%) 3,396 (97.47%) 4,453 (8.06%)
Second trimester CC smoking* 302 (0.59%) 20 (5.94%) 3,397 (97.50%) 3,719 (6.73%)
  1. EC Electronic cigarette, CC Conventional cigarette, HS High school
  2. Asterisk(*) represents a statistically significant difference between three groups for each respective maternal characteristic, calculated from either weighted chi-squared tests for categorical variables or weighted, unadjusted linear regression analyses for continuous variables.
  3. Note: descriptive statistics are given as frquency (percentage) for categorical variables and median (interquartile range) for continuous variables.