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Table 2 Outcomes for women in caseload midwifery care and regular midwifery care

From: Women’s characteristics and care outcomes of caseload midwifery care in the Netherlands: a retrospective cohort study

  All women p-value Chi square Nulliparous women Multiparous women
Caseload practices Matched cohort   Caseload practices Matched cohort Caseload practices Matched cohort
n = 657 n = 1954 n = 319 n = 940 n = 338 n = 1014
Referrals      <  0.001         
 no referral 347 53.1% 666 34.3%   128 40.3% 222 23.8% 219 65.2% 444 44.2%
 antenatal 158 24.2% 725 37.4%   77 24.2% 328 35.1% 81 24.1% 397 39.5%
 intrapartum 149 22.8% 548 28.3%   113 35.5% 384 41.1% 36 10.7% 164 16.3%
(missing: 18)              
Mode of birth      0.001         
 spontaneous vaginal 552 84.0% 1492 77.0%   240 75.2% 636 68.3% 312 92.3% 856 85.0%
 vaginal instrumental 43 6.5% 170 8.8%   36 11.3% 146 15.7% 7 2.1% 24 2.4%
 caesarean section 62 9.4% 276 14.2%   43 13.5% 149 16.0% 19 5.6% 127 12.6%
(missing: 16)              
Start of labour      <  0.001         
 Spontaneous 550 83.7% 1431 73.2%   263 82.4% 709 75.4% 287 84.90% 722 71.2%
 Induction 87 13.2% 410 21.0%   47 14.8% 187 19.9% 40 11.8% 223 22.0%
amniotomy only 19 2.9% 78 4.0%   6 1.9% 27 2.9% 13 3.80% 51 5.0%
hormonal/foley/oxytocin 68 10.4% 332 17.0%   41 12.9% 160 17.0% 27 8.00% 172 17.0%
 Caesarean section 20 3.0% 113 5.8%   9 2.8% 44 4.7% 11 3.30% 69 6.8%
Actual place of birth      <  0.001         
 home 259 39.4% 314 16.1%   92 28.8% 95 10.1% 167 49.4% 219 21.6%
 birthcentre 14 2.1% 31 1.6%   6 1.9% 12 1.3% 8 2.4% 19 1.9%
 hospital (primary care) 72 11.0% 318 16.3%   28 8.8% 113 12.0% 44 13.0% 205 20.2%
 hospital (secondary care) 312 47.5% 1291 66.1%   193 60.5% 720 76.6% 119 35.2% 571 56.3%
Maternal outcomes              
 PPH > 1000 ml 33 5.0% 135 6.9% 0.088 22 6.9% 78 8.3% 11 3.3% 57 5.6%
 intact perineum (vaginal births) 246 41.3% 468 28.2% <  0.001 85 30.8% 164 21.0% 161 50.5% 304 34.5%
 Episiotomy (vaginal births) 95 16.0% 438 26.4% <  0.001 74 26.8% 336 43.0% 21 6.6% 102 11.6%
 3rd/4th perineal tear (vaginal births) 14 2.4% 47 2.8% 0.687 12 4.3% 35 4.5% 2 0.6% 12 1.4%
Perinatal outcomes              
 Perinatal mortality 1 0.2% 7 0.4% 0.408 1 0.3% 5 0.5% 0 2 0.2%
 Apgar 5 min < 7 8 1.2% 35 1.8% 0.318 6 1.9% 21 2.2% 2 0.6% 14 1.4%