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Table 1 Baseline subject characteristics

From: The effect of non-organophosphate household pesticides exposure during pregnancy on infants birth sizes and growth rate: a cohort study

  Use of household pesticides during pregnancy  
Variable Non-exposed (n = 151) Exposed (n = 133) p-value
INFANT
 Male sex, n (%) 86 (58.5) 63 (48.8) 0.11
 Birth weight (grams), (range) 3149 (380), (range: 2150–4300) 3070 (432), (range: 2340–4150) 0.11
 Birth length (cm), (range) 48.44 (1.68) (range: 43–54) 48.08 (2.12) (range: 45–52) 0.14
 Head circumference (cm), (range) 34.38 (1.78), (range 26–39) 33.89 (2.12) (range 23–37) 0.08
 Gestational age (weeks), (range) 38.9 (1.5), (range: 35–42) 38.9 (1.3), (range: 36–42) 2.1 0.96
 Breastfed until 6 months, n (%) 100 (82.6) 85 (78.7) 0.67
MOTHERS
 Maternal age (years) 28.0 (5.2) 28.8 (6.2) 0.29
 Paritya 2 (2) 2 (2) 0.24
 History of abortion, n (%) 13 (9.4) 21 (17.6) 0.16
 BMI mother before pregnancy (kg/m2) 26.2 (4.6) 26.3 (5.1) 0.88
 BMI increment by pregnancy (kg/m2) 3.9 (2.3) 3.6 (2.6) 0.40
 Family income (USD/month), n (%) >223b 19 (12.6) 22 (17.1) 0.18
 Educational level mother, n (%) University level
Senior high school
12 (8.0)
106 (70.7)
9 (6.8)
82 (62.1)
0.42
 Travel using open vehicles, n (%) 138 (91.4) 127 (95.5) 0.31
 Travel without face mask, n (%) 88 (58.3) 77 (57.9) 0.59
 Passive smoking during pregnancy, n (%) 110 (74.8) 100 (76.3) 0.77
 Actively smoking during pregnancy, n (%) 2 (1.3) 3 (2.3) 0.67
Home fuel resources n (%)
Kerosene 11 (7.3) 12 (9.0) 0.61
Gas 133 (88.1) 118 (88.7)  
No garbage burning, n (%) 134 (88.7) 99 (74.4) 0.02
Water resources, n %
City pipe 104 (68.9) 95 (71.4) 0.53
  1. Note: numbers are mean (SD) otherwise indicated, a: median (interquartile range), bfamily income 223 USD/month is the Indonesian minimum monthly wedges per capita