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Table 4 Factors emerged in factor analysis and their association with adequate ANC (≥ 8 visits) in Afghan women

From: Barriers and associated factors for adequate antenatal care among Afghan women in Iran; findings from a community-based survey

  Number of ANC
<  8 visits (%) ≥ 8 visits (%) Crude OR (95% CI) p-value
Poor knowledge/attitude toward ANCa 192 (70.6) 72 (47.4) 0.37 (0.25–0.57) 0.001
Difficulties in accessb 240 (88.2) 104 (68.4) 0.29 (0.17–0.48) 0.001
Poor quality of servicesc 112 (41.2) 32 (21.1) 0.38 (0.24–0.60) 0.001
Sociocultural/legal issuesd 200 (73.5) 88 (57.9) 0.50 (0.33–0.75) 0.001
Total 272 152   
  1. a composed of: “I was healthy”, “I think it is unnecessary”
  2. b composed of: “Expenses were unaffordable”, “Clinic was too far”, “Poor transportation”
  3. c composed of: “The services were not good”, “Long waiting time”
  4. d composed of: “Scare of / being discriminated or poorly treated”, “Religious and cultural reasons”, “Fear of arrest/deportation”, “No one to accompany me”