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Table 1 Association of some demographic, obstetrics and during labour variables with labour dystocia

From: Pre- and during- labour predictors of dystocia in active phase of labour: a case-control study

  Case (n = 350) Control (n = 350) Odds Ratio (95% CI) P
Age (year)
 13–15 3 (0.9%) 3 (0.9%) 0.92 (0.18 to 4.62) 0.923
 16–20 68 (19.4%) 92 (26.3%) 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98) 0.040
 21–34 235 (67.1%) 217 (62.0%) reference  
  + 35 44 (12.6%) 38 (10.9%) 1.07 (0.67 to 1.71) 0.781
Gestational age (week)
 37+ 0 to 39+ 6 200 (57.1%) 244 (69.7%) reference  
 40+ 0 or more 150 (42.9%) 106 (30.3%) 1.73 (1.26 to 2.36) 0.001
Womans height < 160 cm 189 (54%) 105 (30.0%) 2.74 (2.01 to 3.74) < 0.001
Violence during pregnancy
 Physical violence 41 (11.7%) 20 (5.3%) 2.19 (1.26 to 3.83) 0.006
 Emotional violence 126 (35.8%) 67 (19.1%) 2.36 (1.67 to 3.33) < 0.001
 Sexual violence 59 (16.9%) 16 (4.6%) 4.25 (2.39 to 7.54) < 0.001
Low household income 216 (61.7%) 164 (46.9%) 1.82 (1.35 to 2.46) < 0.001
Woman preference for CS (during pregnancy) 66 (18.9%) 34 (9.7%) 2.16 (1.39 to 3.37) 0.001
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
 Low weight (<  18.5) 13 (3.7%) 19 (5.4%) 0.86 (0.41 to 0.79) 0.686
 Normal weight (18.5–24.9) 144 (41.3%) 182 (53%) reference  
 Over weight (25–29.9) 133 (38.1%) 124 (35.4%) 1.35 (0.97 to 1.87) 0.075
 Obesity (>  30) 59 (16.9%) 25 (7.1%) 2.96 (1.77 to 4.96) < 0.001
Gestational weight gaina
 Normal 122 (34.9%) 127 (36.3%) reference  
 Over normal 169 (48.3%) 99 (28.3%) 1.79 (1.26 to 2.55) 0.001
 Less than normal 59 (16.9%) 124 (35.4%) 0.49 (0.34 to 0.74) 0.001
No participating in labour education classes 323 (92.6%) 303 (86.6%) 1.76 (1.07 to 2.92) 0.027
Exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancyb (Passive smoker vs. no smoker) 122 (34.7%) 53 (15.1%) 2.97 (2.06 to 4.29) < 0.001
Insufficient support by staff c 107 (30.7%) 4 (1.1%) 38.60 (14.04 to 106.14) < 0.001
Anxiety levelsd
 Mild 14 (4.0%) 223 (63.7%) reference  
 Moderate 89 (25.4%) 97 (27.7%) 16.68 (8.91 to 31.23) < 0.001
 Severe 247 (70.8%) 30 (8.6%) 167.20 (83.53 to 334.68) < 0.001
Labour induction 244 (69.7%) 56 (16.0%) 12.08 (8.38 to 17.42) < 0.001
Analgesics administration 344 (98.3%) 244 (69.7%) 0.04 (0.02 to 0.09) < 0.001
Remifentanil administration (pain killer) 79 (22.6%) 39 (11.1%) 2.32 (1.53 to 3.53) < 0.001
Woman dehydratione
 No 113 (32.4%) 252 (72.0%) reference  
 Yes, ≤ 3 h 181 (51.6%) 95 (27.1%) 4.25 (3.04 to 5.93) < 0.001
 Yes, > 3 h 56 (16.0%) 3 (0.9%) 41.63 (12.76 to 135.81) < 0.001
Weight of neonate (g)
 2500 to 3499 223 (63.7%) 253 (72.3%) reference  
 Less than 2499 5 (1.4%) 9 (2.6%) −0.46 (0.21 to 1.91) 0.414
  > 3500 122 (34.9%) 88 (25.1%) 1.57 (1.13 to 2.18) 0.007
Head circumference of neonate > 35 cm 126 (36.0%) 69 (19.7%) 2.29 (1.63 to 3.2) < 0.001
Height of neonate > 52 cm 76 (21.7%) 49 (14.0%) 1.70 (1.15 to 2.53) 0.008
  1. All analysis were done using binary logistic regression adjusted for parity (primi- or mulity-parity) and hospital (matching factors)
  2. a Normal weight gain (kg) during pregnancy based on pre-pregnancy BMI: less than 18.5 kg/m2: 12.5–18, between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2: 11.5–16, between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2: 7–11.5, greater than 30 kg/m2: 5–9 [17]; bThere was only one active smoker and daily expose to more than 2 cigarettes was considered as positive exposure; cAssessed by nurse and physician subscale of Mackey satisfaction tool (range score: 17–85): score 17–51 (low satisfaction), score 52–85 (good satisfaction) [21]; dSpielberger anxiety score (range score: 20–85): 20–40 (mild), 41–54 (moderate), > 55 (severe) [18]; eexistence of at least one of dehydration signs or symptoms (dry mouth and lips, thirst, dizziness, weakness, trouble swallowing dry food, dry, sticky mouth that makes it hard to talk, a swollen, cracked or dry tongue) [19]