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Table 2 Difference of PBQ between mothers with IES-R ≥ 25 and other mothers at T1 and T2 (N = 130)

From: A longitudinal study of bonding failure related to aspects of posttraumatic stress symptoms after childbirth among Japanese mothers

PBQ
  Total score
(Mean ± SD)
Impaired bonding
(Mean ± SD)
Rejection and anger
(Mean ± SD)
Anxiety about care
(Mean ± SD)
Risk of abuse
(Mean ± SD)
T1
 IES-R (≥ 25), n = 08 24.25 ± 13.594 13.25 ± 7.421 1.88 ± 3.091 5.75 ± 2.493 0.13 ± 0.354
 IES-R (< 5), n = 122 9.96 ± 7.758 5.03 ± 4.072 1.75 ± 2.847 2.90 ± 2.323 0.01 ± 0.091
 Cohen’s da 1.76 1.92 0.05 1.23 1.00
Huge effect Huge effect Negligible effect Very large effect Large effect
T2
 IES-R (≥ 25), n = 05 21.60 ± 3.782 10.40 ± 1.517 3.00 ± 2.739 5.00 ± 1.225 0.40 ± 0.548
 IES-R (< 25), n = 125 9.23 ± 8.321 4.97 ± 4.589 1.42 ± 2.622 2.31 ± 2.088 0.08 ± 0.393
 Cohen’s da 1.52 1.21 0.61 1.31 0.81
Huge effect Very large effect Medium effect Very large effect Large effect
  1. PBQ Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire, PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder, IES-R Impact of Event Scale Revised, T1 1 month after delivery, T2 4 months after delivery, SD standard deviation.
  2. aHuge effect: d ≥ 1.45, Very large effect: 1.10 < d ≤ 1.45, Large effect: 0.75 ≤ d < 1, Medium effect: 0.4 ≤ d < 0.75,
  3. Small effect: 0.15≤ d < 0.4, Negligible effect: -0.15 ≤ d < 0.15.