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Table 3 Summary of risk factors significantly associated with postnatal depression (N = 58, 2007–2017), (random effect model, result after a trim and fill analysis)

From: Postnatal depression and its association with adverse infant health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable of sub-analysis Number of studies Sample size Pooled Odds Ratio (POR), 95%CI I2, p-value
Poor obstetric history (unplanned pregnancy, GDM, GHP, labor complication, history of emesis, multiparty) 18 28,766 1.98 (1.66–2.36) 64.5%, p = 0.001
History of CMD (depression during pregnancy, family psychiatric illness, stressful life event) 13 10,074 3.30 (1.88–5.80) 99.2%, p = 0.001
Poor social support 12 11,206 2.44 (1.92,3.09) 73.8%, p = 0.001
Low economic status 12 7671 2.05 (1.66–2.54) 96.2%, p = 0.001
Problem with maternal and newborn health 11 5954 3.16 (1.96–5.08) 91.7%, p = 0.001
Exposure to any forms of violence (physical, emotional, sexual) 7 5730 2.61 (2.16–3.15) 0%, p = 0.867
Low educational status of the mother 7 5549 2.06 (1.56–2.73) 48.2%, P = 0.07
  1. CMD common mental disorder, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, GHP gestational hypertension