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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of women who experienced a stillbirth and their stillborn babies at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria, 2010–2018

From: Applying the WHO ICD-PM classification system to stillbirths in a major referral Centre in Northeast Nigeria: a retrospective analysis from 2010-2018

Variables Categories Antepartum n = 365 (%) Intrapartum n = 395 (%) Total
n = 760 (%)
P
Maternal Age (years) < 16 2 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 3 (0.4)  
16–35 315 (86.3) 353 (89.4) 668 (87.9)  
> 35 48 (13.2) 41 (10.4) 89 (11.7) 0.294
Mean (SD) 27.5 (6.6) 27.2 (6.7) 27.6 (6.6) 0.731
Parity Nullipara (0) 118 (32.1) 88 (22.3) 205 (27.0)  
Primipara (1) 37 (10.2) 47 (11.9) 84 (11.1)  
Multipara (2–4) 106 (29.1) 120 (30.4) 226 (29.8)  
Grand multipara (≥5) 104 (28.6) 140 (35.4) 244 (32.1) 0.004
Antenatal care No ANC 280 (76.7) 345 (87.3) 625 (82.2)  
1–3 visits 54 (14.8) 29 (7.4) 83 (10.9)  
4–7 visits 30 (8.2) 17 (4.3) 47 (6.2)  
≥8 1 (0.3) 4 (1.0) 5 (0.7) 0.001
Type of pregnancy Singleton 352 (96.4) 369 (93.4) 720 (94.9)  
Multiple 13 (3.6) 26 (6.6) 39 (5.1) 0.050
Mode of delivery Vaginala 306 (83.8) 265 (67.1) 571 (75.1)  
Caesarean sectionb 59 (16.2) 130 (32.9) 189 (24.9) < 0.001
Previous stillbirth No 304 (83.2) 331 (83.8) 634 (83.5)  
Yes 61 (16.8) 64 (16.2) 125 (16.5) 0.845
Year of stillbirth 2010 29 (8.0) 28 (7.1) 57 (7.5)  
2011 44 (12.1) 85 (21.5) 129 (17.0)  
2012 65 (17.9) 60 (15.2) 125 (16.5)  
2013 47 (12.9) 50 (12.7) 97 (12.8)  
2014 32 (8.5) 21 (5.3) 53 (6.9)  
2015 46 (12.6) 30 (7.6) 76 (10.0)  
2016 37 (10.2) 38 (9.6) 75 (9.9)  
2017 38 (10.4) 41 (10.4) 79 (10.4)  
2018 27 (7.4) 42 (10.6) 69 (9.1) 0.489
Sex of Stillborn babies Female 172 (47.1) 212 (53.7) 384 (50.5)  
Male 193 (52.8) 183 (46.3) 376 (49.5) 0.71
Birthweight (grams)
of stillborn babies
Extremely LBW (< 1000) 16 (4.4) 10 (2.5) 26 (3.4)  
Very LBW (1000–1499) 42 (11.5) 30 (7.6) 72 (9.5)  
Low birthweight (1500–2499) 125 (34.2) 99 (25.1) 224 (29.5)  
Normal birthweight (2500–3999) 151 (41.4) 233 (59.0) 384 (50.5)  
Macrosomia (> 4000) 16 (4.4) 15 (3.8) 31 (4.1)  
∫Missing 15 (4.1) 8 (2.0) 23 (3.0) < 0.001
Mean (SD) 2424 (962) 2642 (842) 2540 (907) 0.001
Duration of
pregnancy (weeks)
Preterm (28–36) 188 (51.5) 152 (38.5) 340 (44.7)  
Term (37–41) 136 (37.3) 183 (46.3) 319 (42.0)  
Post term (42) 24 (6.6) 14 (3.5) 38 (5.0)  
∫Missing 17 (4.6) 46 (11.7) 63 (8.3) 0.001
  1. aIncluded five (5) babies born via assisted (instrumental) vaginal deliveries
  2. bIncluded 51 babies delivered by laparotomy because their mothers had ruptured uterus