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Table 2 Maternal and obstetric characteristics of the study participants (N = 916), Gondar town, Ethiopia, 2018

From: Antenatal depression and its potential causal mechanisms among pregnant mothers in Gondar town: application of structural equation model

Variable/categoryRisk of depressionTotal n = 916, n (%)p-value
Had depression (n = 63), n (%)No depression (n = 853), n (%)
Pregnancy condition   0.010
 Planned31 (49.2)746 (87.5)777 (84.8) 
 Un-timed26 (41.3)97 (11.4)123 (13.4) 
 Un-intended6 (9.5)10 (1.1)16 (1.8) 
Pregnancy trimester   0.170
 2nd trimester16 (37.9)323 (25.4)339 (37.0) 
 3rd trimester47 (62.1)530 (74.6)577 (63.0) 
Pregnancy weeks (mean(±SD))28.8(±5.8)27.7(±6.7)  
Difficulty to conceive in the current pregnancy  0.067
 Yes9 (14.3)66 (7.7)75 (8.2) 
 No54 (85.7)787 (92.3)841 (91.8) 
Parity of the mother   0.450
 124 (38.1)325 (38.1)349 (38.1) 
 216 (25.4)272 (31.9)288 (31.4) 
 3–823 (36.5)256 (30.0)279 (30.5) 
 Mean(±SD)2.3(±1.4)2.1(1.2)2.1(±1.2) 
Preterm history   0.001
 Yes8 (20.5)29 (5.5)37 (6.5) 
 No31 (79.5)499 (94.5)530 (93.5) 
Low birth history   0.144
 Yes3 (7.7)17 (3.2)20 (3.5) 
 No36 (92.3)511 (96.8)547 (96.5) 
History of cesarean section   0.981
 Yes5 (12.8)67 (12.7)72 (12.7) 
 No34 (87.2)461 (87.3)495 (87.3) 
Antenatal care service uptake (at least one) 0.069
 Yes57 (90.5)815 (95.5)872 (95.2) 
 No6 (9.5)38 (4.5)44 (4.8) 
Had fear of birth   0.001
 Yes37 (58.7)158 (18.5)195 (21.3) 
 No26 (41.3)695 (81.5)721 (78.7) 
Partner had different sex preference  0.066
 Yes23 (36.5)221 (25.9)244 (26.6) 
 No40 (63.5)632 (74.1)672 (73.4) 
Did physical activity   0.009
 Yes59 (93.7)839 (98.4)898 (98.0) 
 No4 (6.3)14 (1.6)18 (2.0) 
Mothers health condition in this pregnancy from their own perspective0.001
 Very good10 (15.9)269 (31.5)279 (30.5) 
 Good43 (68.2)536 (62.9)579 (63.2) 
 Bad10 (15.9)48 (5.6)58 (6.3) 
Exposure to cigarette   0.003
 Yes14 (22.2)86 (10.1)100 (10.9) 
 No49 (77.8)767 (89.9)816 (89.1) 
Exposure to coffee   0.078
 Daily29 (46.0)351 (41.1)380 (41.5) 
 Sometimes26 (41.3)287 (33.7)313 (34.2) 
 Never8 (12.7)215 (25.2)223 (24.3) 
Nutritional status of the mother 0.982
 Normal (MUAC 18–22)54 (85.8)732 (85.7)786 (85.8) 
 Underweight (MUAC 22.5–31)9 (14.2)121 (14.3)130 (14.2) 
 MUAC (Mean(±SD)23.9(±1.5)24.1(±1.7)  
  1. p-value is based on Chi-square or fisher exact test wherever the expected cell counts are < 5