Skip to main content

Table 3 Heterogeneity across studies examining depression

From: Women’s psychosocial outcomes following an emergency caesarean section: A systematic literature review

StudyCut scoreTime post partumSample sizeParticipants
with depression
EmCS subgroupEmCS subgroup with depressionEvidence of association between EmCS and PPD
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
Eckerdal, 2017EDPS> 126 weeks3888505 (13%)34650 (16.7%)No
Gaillard, 2014EDPS> 126–8 weeks26444 (16.7%)446 (13.6%)No
Goker, 2012EDPS> 136 weeks318100 (31.4%)10637 (34.9%)No
Iwata, 2015EDPS> 96 months47921.5%6024 (40%)Yes
Patel, 2005EDPS> 138 weeks10,934N/A57256 (9.8%)No
Xie, 2011EDPS> 132 weeks534103 (19.3%)14924 (16.1%)Yes: PPD higher in ElCS than EmCS
Beck Depression Inventory
Chen, 2002BDI 9–106 weeks357N/AN/AN/ANo
Sarah, 2017N/AN/AN/A33.4%,N/A13.8% of 33.4%No mention
Ukpong, 2006BDI > 9 significant, 10–18 mild/moderate, 19–29 moderate/severe, 30–63 extreme6–8 weeks4729.8%40N/ANo