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Table 2 Comparison of total grief scores on the Perinatal Grief Scale

From: Men’s grief following pregnancy loss and neonatal loss: a systematic review and emerging theoretical model

ScaleStudyLoss typeTime point (n)Mean (SD)Overall classification (degree of grief based on normative data)^
Perinatal Grief Scale (total scores)Barr (2004)Stillbirth (≥ 20 weeks gestation) or neonatal death (≤ 28 days from birth)1 month post-loss (n = 72)82.7 (20.73)Mid
13 months post-loss (n = 69)71.9 (24.57)Low
Conway & Russell (2000)Miscarriage (losses occurred between 5 and 16 weeks of gestation)Within 3 weeks of loss (n = 32)133.19 (18.98)High
2–4 months post-loss (n = 16)136.31 (24.11)High
Franche & Bulow (1999)Perinatal loss (losses occurred between 10 to 42 weeks of gestation)Pregnant subsequent to loss group: 1–31.5 months post-loss (n = 24)74.66a (7.16a)Low
Loss group (not currently pregnant): 2–19 months post-loss (n = 18)75.11a (5.8a)Low
Johnson & Puddifoot (1998)Miscarriage (<  24 weeks of gestation)Within 11 weeks post-loss (M = 5.5 weeks; n = 158)78.4 (22.7)Mid
Puddifoot & Johnson (1999)Miscarriage (≤ 20 weeks of gestation) or stillbirth (>  20 weeks of gestation)NR (n = 323)80.98 (29.08)Mid
Rich (2000)Ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage or stillbirth (losses occurred between 3 and 42 weeks of gestation)2–60 months post-loss (M = 16.5 months; n = 114)73.99 (18.47)Low
Serrano & Lima (2006)Miscarriage (≤ 24 weeks of gestation)Up to 1 year post-loss (n = 30)72.23 (16.85)Low
Volgsten et al. (2018)Miscarriage (up to 21 + 6 weeks of gestation)1 week post-loss (n = 64)44.5a (SDs NR)Low
4 months post-loss (n = 64)37.5a (SDs NR)Low
Wilson et al. (2015)#Stillbirth (from at least 20 weeks of gestation or over 400 g in weight)6–8 weeks post-loss (n = 9)82.8a (7.31a)Mid
6 months post-loss (n = 6)75.9a (7.02a)Low
13 months post-loss (n = 3)63.9a (5.80a)Low
  1. aCalculated based on reported subscale mean and SD scores; ^normative data as reported in Lasker & Toedter (2000); #grief reported for fathers who held their stillborn baby after birth; NR not reported