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Table 2 Comparison of total grief scores on the Perinatal Grief Scale

From: Men’s grief following pregnancy loss and neonatal loss: a systematic review and emerging theoretical model

Scale Study Loss type Time point (n) Mean (SD) Overall classification (degree of grief based on normative data)^
Perinatal Grief Scale (total scores) Barr (2004) Stillbirth (≥ 20 weeks gestation) or neonatal death (≤ 28 days from birth) 1 month post-loss (n = 72) 82.7 (20.73) Mid
13 months post-loss (n = 69) 71.9 (24.57) Low
Conway & Russell (2000) Miscarriage (losses occurred between 5 and 16 weeks of gestation) Within 3 weeks of loss (n = 32) 133.19 (18.98) High
2–4 months post-loss (n = 16) 136.31 (24.11) High
Franche & Bulow (1999) Perinatal loss (losses occurred between 10 to 42 weeks of gestation) Pregnant subsequent to loss group: 1–31.5 months post-loss (n = 24) 74.66a (7.16a) Low
Loss group (not currently pregnant): 2–19 months post-loss (n = 18) 75.11a (5.8a) Low
Johnson & Puddifoot (1998) Miscarriage (<  24 weeks of gestation) Within 11 weeks post-loss (M = 5.5 weeks; n = 158) 78.4 (22.7) Mid
Puddifoot & Johnson (1999) Miscarriage (≤ 20 weeks of gestation) or stillbirth (>  20 weeks of gestation) NR (n = 323) 80.98 (29.08) Mid
Rich (2000) Ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage or stillbirth (losses occurred between 3 and 42 weeks of gestation) 2–60 months post-loss (M = 16.5 months; n = 114) 73.99 (18.47) Low
Serrano & Lima (2006) Miscarriage (≤ 24 weeks of gestation) Up to 1 year post-loss (n = 30) 72.23 (16.85) Low
Volgsten et al. (2018) Miscarriage (up to 21 + 6 weeks of gestation) 1 week post-loss (n = 64) 44.5a (SDs NR) Low
4 months post-loss (n = 64) 37.5a (SDs NR) Low
Wilson et al. (2015)# Stillbirth (from at least 20 weeks of gestation or over 400 g in weight) 6–8 weeks post-loss (n = 9) 82.8a (7.31a) Mid
6 months post-loss (n = 6) 75.9a (7.02a) Low
13 months post-loss (n = 3) 63.9a (5.80a) Low
  1. aCalculated based on reported subscale mean and SD scores; ^normative data as reported in Lasker & Toedter (2000); #grief reported for fathers who held their stillborn baby after birth; NR not reported