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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of all mothers (n = 226)a

From: Maternal nutritional adequacy and gestational weight gain and their associations with birth outcomes among Vietnamese women

Baseline characteristicsMean (±SD) / n (%)
Age (years), mean (SD)24.0 (2.9)
Economic status, n (%)
 Low72 (31.9)
 Medium83 (36.7)
 High71 (31.4)
Highest education qualification, n (%)
 Primary school3 (1.3)
 Secondary school59 (26.1)
 High school79 (35.0)
 College / University85 (37.6)
Height (cm), mean (SD)154 (5.0)
Pre-pregnancy weight (kg), mean (SD)45.5 (5.1)
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)19.2 (1.8)
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2), n (%)
 < 18.574 (32.7)
 ≥ 18.5152 (67.3)
Weight at 26 to 29 weeks gestation (kg), mean (SD)52.7 (5.9)
BMI at 26 to 29 weeks gestation (kg/m2), mean (SD)22.2 (2.2)
BMI at 26 to 29 weeks gestation (kg/m2), n (%) 
  < 18.59 (4.0)
  ≥ 18.5217 (96.0)
Gestational weight gain at 26 to 29 weeks gestation (kg), mean (SD)b7.1 (2.7)
Met IOM recommended gestational weight gain at 26 to 29 weeks gestation (kg/m2), n (%)
 Yes85 (38.5)
 No136 (61.5)
MUAC at 26 to 29 weeks gestation (cm), mean (SD)24.2 (2.2)
MUAC at 26 to 29 weeks gestation (cm), n (%)
 < 23.066 (29.2)
 ≥ 23.0160 (70.8)
Nutrient inadequacies, n (%)c
 ≤ 5 nutrients12 (5.3)
 6–10 nutrients114 (50.4)
 11–15 nutrients100 (44.3)
  1. BMI body mass index, MUAC mid-upper arm circumference
  2. aData are presented as means (standard deviations) or numbers (percentages)
  3. bGestational weight gain at 26–29 weeks is calculated by subtracting pre-pregnancy weight from measured weight at 26–29 weeks
  4. cSelected nutrients include protein, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins A, D, E, C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, and B12