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Table 4 Results of the generalized estimating equations of symptoms of PND with infant-feeding outcomes across time

From: A prospective study of maternal postnatal depressive symptoms with infant-feeding practices in a Chinese birth cohort

Variables Exclusive breastfeeding Partial breastfeeding Formula feeding
β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Maternal educational attainment
  ≥ College graduate (ref)
  ≤ Junior school −0.001 − 0.062 0.061 − 0.005 − 0.064 0.053 − 0.078 − 0.185 0.029
 High school − 0.002 − 0.032 0.029 − 0.016 − 0.046 0.013 0.015 − 0.032 0.061
Maternal age (years)
 25–29 (ref)
  ≤ 24 0.027 −0.018 0.071 0.036 −0.006 0.078 −0.022 −0.089 0.046
 30–34 0.000 −0.024 0.024 0.001 −0.023 0.024 0.005 −0.029 0.038
  ≥ 35 0.020 −0.012 0.053 0.035* 0.005 0.065 −0.027 −0.075 0.022
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)        
 18.5–23.9 (ref)
  < 18.5 −0.198* −0.333 −0.064 − 0.263* −0.394 − 0.133 0.213* 0.136 0.290
  ≥ 24 −0.006 −0.032 0.020 0.022 −0.004 0.047 −0.022 −0.058 0.013
Household income (yuan)
 5001–10,000 (ref)
  ≤ 2000 0.072 −0.008 0.152 −0.027 −0.091 0.037 0.072 −0.008 0.152
 2001–5000 0.019 −0.012 0.050 −0.010 −0.031 0.011 0.019 −0.012 0.050
  > 10,000 0.057 −0.020 0.135 −0.072 −0.147 0.003 0.057 −0.020 0.135
Initiation of breastfeeding (hours)
  < 1 (ref)
 1–24 0.005 −0.028 0.038 0.010 −0.020 0.039 0.003 −0.043 0.048
  ≥ 24 −0.035* −0.074 − 0.005 −0.044* − 0.083 −0.004 0.037 −0.014 0.089
Delivery mode
 Vaginal delivery (ref)
 Cesarean delivery −0.043* −0.066 − 0.021 −0.016 − 0.038 0.006 0.063* 0.031 0.094
Screen-positive symptoms of PND
 No (ref)
 Yes −0.049* − 0.101 −0.004 − 0.082* −0.140 − 0.024 0.074* 0.014 0.134
Gestational age (weeks)
 37–42 (ref)
 28–36 −0.009 −0.055 0.038 −0.029 − 0.105 0.047 − 0.003 −0.052 0.047
Parity
 Nulliparous (ref)
 Multiparous −0.015 −0.039 0.010 −0.005 − 0.028 0.019 0.017 −0.018 0.052
Miscarriage
 No (ref)
 Yes 0.010 −0.011 0.031 −0.017 − 0.038 0.005 − 0.006 −0.037 0.025
Pregnancy-related complications
 No (ref)
 Yes 0.007 −0.024 0.039 0.000 −0.032 0.032 −0.009 −0.054 0.036
Passive smoking during pregnancy
 No (ref)
 Yes 0.014 −0.021 0.049 0.013 −0.019 0.044 0.016 −0.031 0.064
Using bottle/ nipple before breastfeeding
 No (ref)
 Yes −0.009 − 0.040 0.023 − 0.004 −0.034 0.026 0.005 −0.039 0.048
  1. * P < 0.05
  2. a BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, PND postnatal depression