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Table 5 Factors associated with being at or above one-to-three ANC visits among pregnant women in Ethiopia (N = 6954)

From: Antenatal care use in Ethiopia: a spatial and multilevel analysis

Predictors N Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
  Being at or above one-to-three ANC visits
Level-1 predictor variables
 Husbands’ or partners’ education No education 4171 1
Primary 1903 1.526 (1.322, 1.763)
Secondary 567 2.023 (1.650, 2.480)
Higher 313 1.72 (1.457, 2.107)
 Wealth quintile Lowest 2264 1
Second 1157 2.004 (1.591, 2.524)
Middle 1007 2.273 (1.786, 2.892)
Fourth 895 3.107 (2.421, 3.987)
Highest 1631 3.483 (2.650, 4.578)
Number of living children 0.929 (0.897, 0.962)
 Autonomy in own personal healthcare decision making Respondent alone 1134 1
Joint decision 4063 0.995 (0.844, 1.174)
Husband/partner alone 1757 0.763 (0.634, 0.919)
 Nature of pregnancy Wanted 5516 1
Unwanted 1438 0.803 (0.692, 0.930)
Level-2 predictor variables
 Residence Urban 1512 1
Rural 5442 0.525 (0.415, 0.663)
 General service readiness Health facility management system 1.016 (0.344, 3.003)
Health facility infrastructure 0.957 (0.361, 2.535)
 Antenatal care service availability ANC supplements 4.909 (1.548, 15.569)
 Antenatal care service readiness Skilled care 1.564 (0.617, 3.962)
Diagnostic service 1.951 (0.768, 4.957)
Average distance to the nearest health facility 0.982 (0.968, 0.995)
Random effects (Error variance)
 Var (Husbands’ or partners’ education) 0.005 (0.001, 16.324)
 Var (Wealth quintile) 0.032 (0.015, 0.115)
 Var (Number of living children) 0.002 (0.001, 0.018)
 Var (Nature of last pregnancy) 0.001 (0.000, 2.400)
 Var (Autonomy on her own healthcare decision) 0.007 (0.001, 2.250)
 Var (constant) - level-2 variance 0.024 (0.007, 0.692)
 Rho – Intra-class correlation 0.0073
 Fit statistics (−2 Log Likelihood) 12,857.23
  1. Bold entries have signficant values