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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Prenatal maternal stress and birth outcomes in rural Ghana: sex-specific associations

  All Infant (N = 353) Girls (N = 188) Boys (N = 165)
Continuous variables, Median, IQR
 Maternal age (years) 28.3 23.4-34 28.7 23.5-33.9 27.1 23.3-34.3
 Maternal height (cm) 155 152-160 155.1 151-162 155 152-160
 Maternal weight (kg) 55 51-62 55 50-61 55.1 51-62
 Gestational Age at delivery (weeks) 39.9 39.1-4.9 39.9 39.1-40.9 39.9 39.1-40.6
 Infant birth weight (kg) 3.0 2.7-3.2 2.9 2.6-3.2 3.0 2.7-3.3
 Infant head circumference (cm) 33.8 32.6-35 33.5 32.4-34.5 34.0 33-35
 Infant birth length (cm) 47.5 45.1-49 47.1 45-49 48.0 45.6-49
Categorical variables, N, %
 Negative life eventsa
  0-2 97 27.5 56 51.6 41 24.8
  3-5 177 50.1 87 46.3 90 54.5
   > 5 79 22.3 45 23.9 34 20.6
 Ethnicity
  Dagarti 79 22.4 47 25.0 32 19.4
  Akan 71 20.1 40 21.3 31 18.8
  Konkonba 54 15.3 31 16.5 23 13.9
  Gonja 42 11.9 18 9.6 24 14.5
  Mo 41 11.6 20 10.6 21 12.7
  Other 66 18.7 32 17.0 34 20.7
 Adverse Birth Outcomeb
  Low birth weight 46 13 27 14.4 19 11.5
  Small for gestational age 73 20.7 48 25.5 25 15.2
  Stillbirth 7 2 2 1.1 5 3
  Any adverse birth outcome 85 24.1 52 27.7 33 20
 Clusterc
  Liquified petroleum gas stove 76 17.2 39 20.7 37 22.4
  BioLite stove 116 32.9 57 30.3 59 35.8
  Three stone fire stove (control) 161 46.6 92 48.9 69 41.8
 Marriage status
  Married 197 55.8 106 56.4 91 55.2
  Living together 126 35.7 69 36.7 57 34.5
  Single 30 8.5 13 6.9 17 10.3
 Home ownership
  Yes 191 54.1 97 51.6 94 57
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range; LPG liquid petroleum gas; NLEs negative life events; N number
  2. Adverse birth outcome: stillbirth, low birth weight or small for gestational age
  3. a Negative life events defined by the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) survey19
  4. b Low birth weight defined as less than 2500 g; Small-for-gestational age defined as birth weight < 10th percentile; Stillbirth defined as no signs of life at delivery. Any adverse birth outcome, defined as any LBW, SGA, or stillborn infant
  5. c Cluster as defined by randomly assigned cookstove arm in the Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study