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Table 2 Association between symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress and clinical variables among women with GDM using univariate analysis (n = 526)

From: Prevalence and factors associated with depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms among women with gestational diabetes mellitus in tertiary care centres in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

Parameters Depressive Symptoms Anxiety Symptoms Stress Symptoms
No
n = 460 (87.5%)
Yes
n = 66 (12.5%)
p-value No
n = 316 (60.1%)
Yes
n = 210 (39.9%)
p-value No
n = 470 (89.4%)
Yes
n = 56 (10.6%)
p-value
A Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Treatment Profile
 Baseline Fasting Plasma Glucose, mmol/L 5.48 ± 1.43 5.52 ± 1.40 0.877 5.50 ± 1.46 5.48 ± 1.38 0.897 5.48 ± 1.43 5.58 ± 1.38 0.619
 Baseline 75-g Two-Hour OGTT, mmol/L 9.13 ± 2.52 9.18 ± 2.87 0.895 9.09 ± 2.50 9.22 ± 2.66 0.577 9.12 ± 2.51 9.32 ± 2.99 0.584
 Baseline HbA1c at Diagnosis, % 5.87 ± 1.47 5.57 ± 0.93 0.311 5.87 ± 1.57 5.80 ± 1.18 0.672 5.85 ± 1.46 5.72 ± 0.95 0.679
 Treatments OAD and/or diet modification 319(87.6) 45(12.4) 0.809 225(61.8) 139(38.2) 0.231a 327(89.8) 37(10.2) 0.560
Insulin with/out OAD and/or diet modification 139(86.9) 21(13.1) 90(56.3) 70(43.8) 141(88.1) 19(11.9)
 Self-Monitoring with Glucometer No 61(82.4) 13(17.6) 0.074 a 42(56.8) 32(43.2) 0.405 65(87.8) 9(12.2) 0.476
Yes 323(89.7) 37(10.3) 223(61.9) 137(38.1) 326(90.6) 34(9.4)
Socio-Demographic Factors
 Age 32.36 ± 4.93 31.73 ± 4.67 0.330 32.64 ± 4.92 31.73 ± 4.82 0.037 32.34 ± 4.88 31.73 ± 5.04 0.379
 Ethnicity Malay 391(90.3) 42(9.7) 0.000 a 270(62.4) 163(37.6) 0.021a 395(91.2) 38(8.8) 0.003 a
Non-Malay 69(74.2) 24(25.8) 46(49.5) 47(50.5) 75(80.6) 18(19.4)
 BMI, kg/m2 29.51 ± 6.28 28.70 ± 5.83 0.331 29.37 ± 5.91 29.44 ± 6.65 0.899 29.38 ± 6.09 29.52 ± 7.26 0.880
 Religion Muslim 398(90.2) 43(9.8) 0.000 a 274(62.1) 167(37.9) 0.037a 402(91.2) 39(8.8) 0.002 a
Non-Muslim 61(72.6) 23(27.4) 42(50.0) 42(50.0) 67(79.8) 17(20.2)
 Education Secondary and below 205(85.1) 36(14.9) 0.134 a 145(60.2) 96(39.8) 0.903 211(87.6) 30(12.4) 0.275
Tertiary 246(89.5) 29(10.5) 164(59.6) 111(40.4) 249(90.5) 26(9.5)
 Employment Unemployed 152(85.9) 25(14.1) 0.371 110(62.1) 67(37.9) 0.497 156(88.1) 21(11.9) 0.500
Employed 303(88.6) 39(11.4) 202(59.1) 140(40.9) 308(90.1) 34(9.9)
 Family Income, Ringgit Malaysia 3946.02 ± 2402.72 3809.79 ± 3232.09 0.758 3887.51 ± 2437.18 3990.73 ± 2632.08 0.662 3916.01 ± 2405.89 4038.82 ± 3313.27 0.798
 Pregnancy Planned No 296(87.3) 43(12.7) 0.858 207(61.1) 132(38.9) 0.758 302(89.1) 37(10.9) 0.981
Yes 144(86.7) 22(13.3) 99(59.6) 67(40.4) 148(89.2) 18(10.8)
 Marital Status Without husband 16(76.2) 5(23.8) 0.162 b 15(71.4) 6(28.6) 0.286 17(81.0) 4(19.0) 0.259
With husband 441(88.2) 59(11.8) 299(59.8) 201(40.2) 450(90.0) 50(10.0)
 Parity Nulliparous- Primiparous 246(87.5) 35(12.5) 0.973 163(58.0) 118(42.0) 0.229 252(89.7) 29(10.3) 0.837
Multiparous ≥2 209(87.4) 30(12.6) 151(63.2) 88(36.8) 213(89.1) 26(10.9)
 Smoking No 443(87.0) 66(13.0) 1.000 301(59.1) 208(40.9) 0.086b 454(89.2) 55(10.8) 1.000
Yes 6(100.0) 0(0.0) 6(100.0) 0(0.0) 6(100.0) 0(0.0)
 Alcohol No 449(87.7) 63(12.3) 1.000 309(60.4) 203(39.6) 0.719 459(89.6) 53(10.4) 0.587
Yes 7(87.5) 1(12.5) 4(50.0) 4(50.0) 7(87.5) 1(12.5)
Past Obstetric History
 Abortion No 349(88.6) 45(11.4) 0.158 a 244(61.9) 150(38.1) 0.140a 353(89.6) 41(10.4) 0.717
Yes 109(83.8) 21(16.2) 71(54.6) 59(45.4) 115(88.5) 15(11.5)
 Preterm Delivery No 441(87.7) 62(12.3) 0.321 305(60.6) 198(39.4) 0.233a 449(89.3) 54(10.7) 1.000
Yes 17(81.0) 4(19.0) 10(47.6) 11(52.4) 19(90.5) 2(9.5)
 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus No 356(88.1) 48(11.9) 0.366 245(60.6) 159(39.4) 0.650 366(90.6) 38(9.4) 0.082 a
Yes 102(85.0) 18(15.0) 70(58.3) 50(41.7) 102(85.0) 18(15.0)
Current Medical Problems
 Hypertension No 434(87.1) 64(12.9) 0.760 298(59.8) 200(40.2) 0.573 445(89.4) 53(10.6) 0.751
Yes 24(92.3) 2(7.7) 17(65.4) 9(34.6) 23(88.5) 3(11.5)
 Allergy No 451(88.1) 61(11.9) 0.011b 310(60.5) 202(39.5) 0.236b 460(89.8) 52(10.2) 0.030b
Yes 7(58.3) 5(41.7) 5(41.7) 7(58.3) 8(66.7) 4(33.3)
 Asthma No 424(87.8) 59(12.2) 0.368 298(61.7) 185(38.3) 0.011a 435(90.1) 48(9.9) 0.066b
Yes 34(82.9) 7(17.1) 17(41.5) 24(58.5) 33(80.5) 8(19.5)
Family History
 Heart Disease No 390(88.6) 50(11.4) 0.052 a 268(60.9) 172(39.1) 0.395 394(89.5) 46(10.5) 0.693
Yes 68(81.0) 16(19.0) 47(56.0) 37(44.0) 74(88.1) 10(11.9)
 Depression and Anxiety No 447(88.9) 56(11.1) 0.005b 308(61.2) 195(38.8) 0.029a 453(90.1) 50(9.9) 0.191b
Yes 9(60.0) 6(40.0) 5(33.3) 10(66.7) 12(80.0) 3(20.0)
 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus No 301(89.6) 35(10.4) 0.085a 208(61.9) 128(38.1) 0.335 307(91.4) 29(8.6) 0.089 a
Yes 151(84.4) 28(15.6) 103(57.5) 76(42.5) 155(86.6) 24(13.4)
  1. Data are presented as either n (%) or mean ± SD
  2. aPearson Chi-Square at p < 0.25 entered multivariate logistic regression
  3. bFisher’s Exact Test at p < 0.25 entered multivariate logistic regression