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Table 1 Bleeding characteristics at time of inclusion of women with persistent postpartum haemorrhage, as compared with women with different cut-off values for estimations of blood loss within 24 h following birth. Women with higher volumes of blood loss are included in the cohorts starting with lower volumes of blood loss

From: Clinical characteristics of women captured by extending the definition of severe postpartum haemorrhage with ‘refractoriness to treatment’: a cohort study

Bleeding characteristic Persistent postpartum haemorrhage (N = 1260) Blood loss ≥1000 mL (N = 1391) Blood loss ≥1500 mL (N = 1344) Blood loss ≥2000 mL (N = 1252) Blood loss ≥2500 mL (N = 1050)
Time from birth till inclusion of patients – no. (%)
 < 1 h 820 (65.1) 819 (58.7) 553 (41.1) 309 (24.7) 160 (15.2)
 ≥ 1–2 h 251 (19.9) 318 (22.9) 385 (28.6) 419 (33.5) 341 (32.5)
 ≥ 2 h 189 (15.0) 257 (18.5) 406 (30.2) 524 (41.9) 549 (52.3)
Mode of birth - no. (%)
 Vaginal 967 (76.7) 1032 (74.2) 1002 (74.6) 945 (75.5) 792 (75.4)
 Caesarean 285 (22.6) 351 (25.2) 3354 (24.9) 301 (24.0) 253 (24.1)
 Unknown 8 (0.6) 8 (0.6) 7 (0.5) 6 (0.5) 5 (0.5)
Cause of haemorrhage – no. (%)
 Uterine atony 805 (63.9) 901 (64.8) 874 (65.0) 824 (65.8) 685 (65.2)
 Retained placenta 219 (17.4) 231 (16.6) 227 (16.9) 207 (16.5) 172 (16.4)
 Abnormally invasive placenta 113 (9.0) 113 (8.1) 107 (8.0) 100 (8.0) 89 (8.5)
 Placenta previa 12 (1.0) 19 (1.4) 19 (1.4) 18 (1.4) 17 (1.6)
 Placental abruption 12 (1.0) 28 (2.0) 24 (1.8) 18 (1.4) 16 (1.5)
 Surgical cause 92 (7.3) 92 (6.6) 87 (6.5) 81 (6.5) 69 (6.6)
 Pre-existent coagulation disorder 7 (0.6) 7 (0.5) 6 (0.4) 4 (0.3) 2 (0.2)
Bleeding rate – no. (%)
 < 1 L/hr. 457 (36.3) 496 (35.7) 508 (37.8) 499 (39.9) 432 (41.1)
 ≥ 1-2 L/hr. 316 (25.1) 332 (23.9) 315 (23.4) 302 (24.1) 266 (25.3)
 ≥ 2 L/hr. 481 (38.2) 552 (39.7) 513 (38.2) 445 (35.5) 349 (33.2)
 Unknown 6 (0.5) 11 (0.8) 8 (0.6) 6 (0.5) 3 (0.3)
Signs of haemorrhagic shock – no. (%)
 No 344 (27.3) 416 (29.9) 385 (28.6) 295 (23.6) 190 (18.1)
 Yes 580 (46.0) 488 (35.1) 693 (51.6) 811 (64.8) 782 (74.5)
 Unknown 336 (26.7) 487 (35.0) 266 (19.8) 146 (11.7) 78 (7.4)
Packed red blood cells transfused – no. (%)
 No 1196 (94.9) 1271 (91.4) 1145 (85.2) 888 (70.9) 536 (51.0)
 Yes 64 (5.1) 120 (8.6) 199 (14.8) 364 (29.1) 514 (49.0)