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Table 1 Socio demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants attending antenatal care at Gondar town public health facilities, Northwest Ethiopia: March 2018–January 2019 (N = 1027)

From: Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated factors among women attending antenatal care at Gondar town public health facilities, Northwest Ethiopia

Variables n (%) or mean ± SD t/× 2 P value
Total participants (n = 1027) Normal (n = 896) GDM (n = 131)
Maternal age (years) 27.22 ± 5.241 26.69 ± 5.047 30.86 ± 5.109 8.827 < 0.001
 < 25 323 (31.5) 304 (94.1) 19 (5.9) 61.108 < 0.001
 25–29 366 (35.6) 335 (91.5) 31 (8.5)   
 30–34 214 (20.8) 168 (78.5) 46 (21.5)   
 ≥ 35 124 (12.1) 89 (71.8) 35 (28.2)   
Marital status
 Married 945 (92) 831(87.9) 114 (12.1) 5.094 0.024
 Single and othersa 82 (8.0) 65 (79.3) 17 (20.7)   
Educational level
 Not formal education 200 (19.5) 168 (84) 32 (16.0)) 5.472 0.065
 Primary education 229 (22.3) 194 (84.7) 35 (15.3)   
 Secondary education and above 598 (58.2) 534 (89.3) 64 (10.7)   
Employment status
 Unemployed 621 (60.5) 556 (89.5) 65 (10.5) 7.393 0.007
 Employed 406 (39.5) 340 (83.7) 66 (16.3)   
Residence
 Urban 935 (91) 812 (86.8) 123 (13.2) 1.497 0.221
 Rural 92 (9.0) 84 (91.3) 8 (8.7)   
Monthly income (birr) 3159.7 ± 2973.05 3155.17 ± 2952.66 3190.8 ± 3120.55 0.128 0.898
 < 1500 236 (23) 203 (86) 33 (14) 1.641 0.650
 1500–2499 257 (25) 230 (89.5) 27 (10.5)   
 2500–3999 230 (22.4) 199 (86.5) 31 (13.5)   
 ≥ 4000 304 (29.6) 264(86.8) 40 (13.2)   
Family history of DM
 No 965 (94) 862 (89.3) 103 (10.7) 62.264 < 0.001
 Yes 62 (6) 34 (54.8) 28 (45.2)   
Parity 0.92 ± 1.208 0.91 ± 1.227 1.02 ± 1.063 1.013 0.311
 Nullipara 504 (49.1) 449 (89.1) 55 (10.9) 5.717 0.057
 Primipara 277 (27) 243 (87.7) 34 (12.3)   
 Multipara 246 (24) 204 (82.9) 42 (17.1)   
Gravidity 2.12 ± 1.354 2.09 ± 1.364 2.32 ± 1.267 1.838 0.066
 Primigravida 439 (42.7) 395 (90) 44 (10) 5.146 0.023
 Multigravida 588 (57.3) 501 (85.2) 87 (14.8)   
MUAC 24.77 ± 3.08 24.52 ± 2.837 26.47 ± 4.014 6.93 < 0.001
 MUAC < 28 cm 852 (83) 767 (90) 85 (10) 34.700 < 0.001
 MUAC ≥28 cm 175 (17) 129 (73.7) 46 (26.3)   
Blood pressure
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 112.07 ± 11.91 111.57 ± 11.31 115.46 ± 15.01 3.508 < 0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 71.91 ± 10.22 71.60 ± 9.88 74.05 ± 12.09 2.565 0.010
Blood glucose levelb
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) 81.17 ± 12.960 78.3 ± 9.55 100.81 ± 15.88 22.779 < 0.001
 1-h blood glucose (OGTT) (mg/dl) 140.69 ± 24.55 137.31 ± 22.0 163.82 ± 28.42 12.368 < 0.001
 2-h blood glucose (OGTT) (mg/dl) 119.10 ± 19.75 116.22 ± 17.40 138.76 ± 23.40 13.188 < 0.001
Hemoglobin (g/dl)c 12.609 ± 1.75 12.64 ± 1.74 12.39 ± 1.80 −1.545 0.123
 Normal (Hb ≥ 11 g/dl) 874 (86.6) 769 (88.0) 105 (12.0) 1.949 0.163
 Anemia (Hb < 11 g/dl) 135 (13.4) 113 (83.7) 22 (16.3)   
  1. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, h hour, t student t value, x2 chi square, Hb hemoglobin, g/dl gram per deciliter, mg/dl milligram deciliter, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, MUAC Mid upper arm circumference
  2. aDivorced or widowed
  3. bBlood glucose value at regular time (24–28 weeks)
  4. c18 participants were missed (N = 1009)