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Table 1 Characteristics of Women – North and South of Nigeria (2008 & 2013 pooled)

From: Levels and determinants of maternal mortality in northern and southern Nigeria

VariableNorth (n = 32,629)South (n = 18,863)p-value
 n (%)n (%) 
Survival status
 Alive31,452 (96.4)18,479 (97.9)< 0.0001
 Dead1177 (3.6)384 (2.0) 
 Mean (SD)Mean (SD) 
Community level
 Community wealth (range: 0–1)0.21 (0.15)0.61 (0.18)< 0.0001
Individual level
 Age (range: 15–49)31.1 (8.77)33.62 (8.4)< 0.0001
 Social autonomy (range: 0–4)1.19 (1.52)2.49 (1.38)< 0.0001
 Domestic violence (range: 0–4)1.38 (1.65)0.89 (1.35)< 0.0001
Categorical variablesn (%)n (%) 
Distance to facility
 Small problem20,232 (62.3)13,044 (69.4)< 0.0001
 Big problem12,264 (37.7)5754 (30.6) 
Media exposure
 No exposure14,106 (43.3)2754 (14.6) 
 Low exposure13,054 (40.1)7353 (39.0)< 0.0001
 Medium exposure4876 (14.9)7619 (40.4) 
 High exposure559 (1.7)1117 (5.9) 
Contraception type
 No method30,232 (92.7)13,540 (71.8) 
 Folk/traditional400 (1.2)2044 (10.8)< 0.0001
 Modern1997 (6.1)2430 (18.6) 
Education
 No education21,550 (66.1)2189 (11.6) 
 Primary5530 (16.9)5866 (31.1)< 0.0001
 Secondary/higher5549 (17.1)10,808 (57.3) 
Religion
 Catholics1660 (5.1)2946 (15.7) 
 Other Christians5844 (18.0)12,897 (68.6)< 0.0001
 Islam24,461 (75.4)2606 (13.9) 
 Traditionalist/Other458 (1.4)356 (1.9) 
Ethnicity North
 Fulani3928 (12.1) 
 Hausa13,388 (41.2) 
 Kanuri/Beriberi1084 (3.3) 
 Tiv1091 (3.4) 
 Yoruba1160 (3.6) 
 Others11,848 (36.5)< 0.0001
Ethnicity South
 Ekoi/Ibibio1364 (7.3) 
 Igbo5522 (29.4) 
 Ijaw/Izon1863 (9.9) 
 Yoruba5695 (30.3) 
 Others4371 (23.2) 
Type of residence
 Urban7450 (22.8)9055 (48.0)< 0.0001
 Rural25,179 (77.2)9808 (52.0) 
Wealth index
 Poor19,771 (60.6)3096 (16.4) 
 Middle6164 (18.9)4173 (22.1)< 0.0001
 Rich6694 (20.5)11,594 (61.5) 
Water quality
 Improved15,580 (48.1)11,501 (62.1)< 0.0001
 Unimproved16,845 (51.9)7032 (37.94) 
Year
 200815,499 (47.5)8389 (44.5) 
 201317,130 (52.5)10,474 (55.5)