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Table 3 Risk factors for the following specified pregnancy outcomes considered as dependent variables: delivery < 37 weeks’ gestation; pregnancy related hypertensive disorders; and caesarean section. Possible risk factors were considered as independent variables. Univariate and multivariate (*) logistic regression analysis were performed. (**) Excluded from the analysis non cephalic fetal presentation. (#) p-value corrected for the false discovery rate test

From: Maternal age and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

  OR (CI95%) p OR (CI95%) (*) p (*) p(#)
Delivery < 37 weeks’ gestation
 Maternal age > 40 years 1.47 (1.27–1.71) < 0.05 1.36 (1.16–1.61) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Nulliparous women 1.26 (1.16–1.38) < 0.05 1.31 (1.19–1.44) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Conception via assisted reproductive techniques 1.53 (1.13–2.07) < 0.05 1.24 (0.9–1.72) 0.180 0.184
 PRHDs (ŧ) 10.82 (9.16–12.78) < 0.05 12.25 (10.02–14.99) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Low schooling (ŧ) 1.25 (1.14–1.38) < 0.05 1.31 (1.17–1.46) < 0.05 < 0.05
Macro-region of origin
 Europe/Italy Reference Reference
 Sub-Saharian Africa 1.43 (1.19–1.73) < 0.05 1.19 (0.97–1.47) 0.090 0.106
 Arabian countries 0.75 (0.56–1) < 0.05 0.75 (0.55–1.01) 0.060 0.077
 Other origin 1.38 (1.11–1.71) < 0.05 1.35 (1.08–1.69) < 0.05 < 0.05
Pregnancy related hypertensive disorders
 Maternal age > 40 years 2.32 (1.83–2.94) < 0.05 2.36 (1.86–3.00) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Nulliparous women 1.07 (0.91–1.26) 0.439    
 Conception via assisted reproductive techniques 2.4 (1.53–3.75) < 0.05 2.28 (1.45–3.58) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Low schooling 1.53 (1.28–1.82) < 0.05 1.4 (1.17–1.69) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Sub-Saharian Africa origin 2.73 (2.08–3.58) < 0.05 2.53 (1.91–3.36) < 0.05 < 0.05
GDM
 Maternal age > 40 years 1.74 (1.41–2.16) < 0.05 1.71 (1.37–2.12) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Nulliparous women 0.71 (0.62–0.82) < 0.05 0.74 (0.64–0.84) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Conception via assisted reproductive techniques 2.02 (1.35–3.03) < 0.05 2.12 (1.4–3.19) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Low schooling 1.08 (0.93–1.27) 0.309    
Macro-region of origin
 Europe/Italy Reference Reference
 Sub-Saharian Africa 1.44 (1.08–1.91) < 0.05 1.44 (1.08–1.93) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Arabian countries 1.5 (1.07–2.11) < 0.05 1.49 (1.05–2.1) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Other origin 1.35 (0.97–1.87) 0.077 1.33 (0.94–1.86) 0.104 0.104
Abnormal fetal presentation
 Maternal age > 40 years 1.22 (0.98–1.52) 0.068 1.29 (1.03–1.61) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Nulliparous women 1.53 (1.35–1.73) < 0.05 1.52 (1.34–1.73) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Conception via assisted reproductive techniques 1.94 (1.34–2.8) < 0.05 1.65 (1.14–2.39) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Arabian countries origin 0.37 (0.21–0.64) < 0.05 0.37 (0.21–0.66) < 0.05 < 0.05
Caesarean section (**)
 Maternal age > 40 years 2.03 (1.82–2.27) < 0.05 1.99 (1.78–2.23) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Nulliparous women 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 0.774    
 Conception via assisted reproductive techniques 1.68 (1.34–2.12) < 0.05 1.52 (1.20–1.93) < 0.05 < 0.05
 PRHDs (ŧŧ) 4.74 (3.97–5.65) < 0.05 29.6 (10.72–81.70) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Low schooling 1.07 (1.00–1.15) < 0.05 1.02 (0.95–1.10) 0.610 0.612
 Sub-Saharian Africa origin 1.61 (1.45–1.79) < 0.05 1.63 (1.46–1.82) < 0.05 < 0.05
 Induced/augmented labor 0.97 (0.89–1.05) 0.400    
 Neonatal weight (MoM) (ŧŧ) 0.68 (0.55–0.85) < 0.05 0.89 (0.71–1.12) 0.330 0.379
  1. Acronyms: PRHD Pregnancy related hypertensive disorder, MoM Multiple of median. Interaction terms: (ŧ) Interaction term for PRHDs and Low schooling OR 0.56 (CI95% 0.39–0.81) (p < 0.05); (ŧŧ) Interaction term for PRHDs and neonatal weight MoM OR 0.13 (CI95% 0.05–0.37)