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Table 2 Characteristics of the dietary patterns

From: Systematic review of the association between dietary patterns and perinatal anxiety and depression

Study ID Dietary patterns (% adesion)
Paskulin et al. (2017) [26] Restricted dietary pattern (205 women [28.8%]):Cookies, snacks, French fries, soft drinks, whole milk, natural juice, yogurt, cocoa powder, and ice cream.
Varied pattern (244 women [34.3%]):wide variety of foods from the following groups: cereals, grains, and tubers; cakes, breads, and cookies; fruits and vegetables.
Common-Brazilian pattern (263 women [36.9%]): beans, rice or noodles, boneless beef/chicken or eggs, French rolls, margarine, coffee with sugar, and artificial juices.
Baskin et al. (2017) [27] Healthy pattern: vegetables, fruit, nuts, fish and seafood, eggs, whole grainswater, and tea.
Unhealthy pattern: condiments, refined grains, sweets and desserts, fast foods, highenergy drinks, high-fat dairy, hot chips, fruit juice and red meats and high negative loadings on oil/vinegar-based and nuts-based dressing.
Vilela et al. (2015) [28] Common-Brazilian pattern: beans, rice, meats and eggs, and vegetable spices.
Healthy pattern: roots and tubers, legumes and green vegetables, fruits and fruit juice, fish, dairy products, pasta, tea, cakes, cookies-crackers, and candies, and was inversely related with coffee intake.
Processed pattern:bread, fat, sugar, snacks and fast food, soft drinks, and deli meats and sausages.
Vilela et al. (2014) [29] Common-Brazilian pattern: Rice, beans, meats, eggs, vegetable spices.
Healthy pattern: Dairy products, green vegetables and legumes, fruits and fruit juices, fish, candies, noodles, cakes and cookies/crackers, pasta, roots, tubers, tea.
Processed pattern: Bread, fast food and snacks, fat, sausages and deli meats, sugar, soft drinks, coffee.
Santos Vaz et al. (2013) [30] Healthconscious pattern’: Salad, fruit, fruit juice, fish, pasta, rice, oat/bran based breakfast cereal, cheese, pulses, non-white bread.
Traditional pattern: Vegetables, red meat, poultry.
Processed pattern: Meat pies, burgers, sausages, fried foods, chips, pizza, eggs, white bread, baked beans.
Confectionery pattern: Chocolate, biscuits, sweets, puddings, cakes.
Vegetarian pattern: Meat substitutes, pulses, herbal, nuts, tea and high negative loadings for red meat and poultry.
Okubo et al. (2011) [31] Healthy pattern: Green and yellow vegetables, white vegetables, potatoes, seaweeds, fruits, fish, shellfish and sea products. Western pattern: Vegetable oil, beef and pork, processed meat, chicken and eggs, salt-containing seasonings.
Japanese pattern: Rice, sea products, miso soup, fish and pickled vegetables.
Chatzil et al. (2011) [32] Western pattern: Meat and meat products, sugar and sweets, potatoes, fats except olive oil, cereals, eggs, salty snacks, beverages and sauces.
Health conscious pattern: Vegetables, fruit, pulses, nuts, olive oil, fish and seafood, and dairy products.
Maracy et al. (2014) [33] Mixed pattern: Legumes, red meat, salt, oil, processed meat, offal, chicken, fish, potato, eggs, snacks, sugar, nuts and refined grains.
Semi-healthy pattern: Fruits, juices and sweets desserts, butter, nuts, processed cereals, pickles, low-fat dairy products, fruit jelly, pasta and dairy products.
Fruits and vegetables pattern: Cabbage, green vegetables, green leaves, other vegetables, fruits, tomatoes.
Variance explained: 41%.
Teo et al. (2018) [34] The Traditional-Chinese-Confinement (TCC) diet: Characterized by high consumption of traditional dried fruits, Chinese herbs, rhizomes, herbal tea, and foods cooked with alcohol, wine, or vinegar.
The Traditional-Indian-Confinement (TIC) diet: Compost by ethnic bread, whole milk, Indian herbs, seed herbs, and butter/ghee.
The Eat-Out diet: Characterized by high consumption of deep-fried/mashed potato, ice-cream, sweetened and cordial
drinks, deep-fried dimsum, chips/crisps, and local savoury snacks.
Soup-Vegetables-Fruits (SVF) diet: Higher intakes of assorted soup (vegetables, seafood, fish, meat, and noodles), fish (non-fried), vegetables, and fresh fruits, and lower intakes of milk-based drinks and sweet spreads.
Miyakea et al. (2018) [35] Healthy pattern (10.1%): Green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, pulses, miso soup, mushrooms, seaweed, fish, potatoes, sea products, sugar, and shellfish and a low intake of bread andconfectioneries.
Japanese pattern (6.2%): High intake of rice and misosoup and low intake of coffee and cocoa, dairy products, confectioneries, sugar, and bread.
Western pattern (5.8%):High intake of processed meat, beef and pork, chicken, vegetable oil, shellfish, eggs, and salt-containing seasonings and a low intake of bread.