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Table 2 Characteristics of the 14 guidelines

From: Current guidelines on the management of gestational diabetes mellitus: a content analysis and appraisal

Guidelines Country/region Development institute Publication year Type Main content
1 Gestational Diabetes (2016) Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline [11] USA A.N.D. 2016 Evidence-based The focus of this guideline is on nutrition practice during the treatment of women with GDM. Topics include: Referral to an RDN; Nutrition Assessment; MNT; Calories; Macronutrients; Vitamins and Minerals; Meal and Snack Distribution; High-Intensity Sweeteners; Alcohol; ⑩Physical Activity; ⑪Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation
2 Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diabetes and Pregnancy [12] Canada CDA 2013 Evidence-based “Diabetes and Pregnancy” is one of chapters of the full guideline--“Clinical Practice Guidelines”, which contains Pregestational Diabetes and GDM. GDM topics include: Screening and diagnosis; Management (Lifestyle, Glycemic control, Monitoring, Pharmacological therapy, Intrapartum glucose management, Intrapartum insulin management, Postpartum care, Planning future pregnancies)
3 Diabetes and Pregnancy: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline [13] USA Endocrine Society 2013 Evidence-based The Guideline addresses important clinical issues in the contemporary management of women with Pregestational Diabetes and women with GDM during and after pregnancy. GDM: Testing and diagnosis; Management of elevated blood glucose; Glucose monitoring and glycemic targets; Nutrition therapy and weight gain targets; Blood glucose-lowering pharmacological therapy during pregnancy, Labor, delivery, lactation, and postpartum care.
4 Global Guideline on Pregnancy and Diabetes [14] International IDF 2009 Evidence-based The guideline is for pregnant women with known diabetes or GDM, and topics include: Pre-conception glycaemic control; Testing for GDM; Management during pregnancy (Monitoring glucose levels, Lifestyle management, Insulin use during pregnancy, Oral glucose-lowering agents in pregnancy); Management after pregnancy (Breastfeeding, Follow-up of GDM, Prevention of type 2 diabetes in women who developed GDM).
5 Screening, Diagnosis and Management of Gestational Diabetes in New Zealand: A clinical practice guideline [15] New Zealand NZGG 2014 Evidence-based This guideline covers: Early screening of women for probable undiagnosed diabetes; Screening, diagnosis and management of women with GDM; Follow-up of women with GDM to detect type 2 diabetes after birth.
6 Queensland Clinical Guideline: Gestational diabetes mellitus [16] Queensland Department of Health 2015 Evidence-based This guideline includes recommendations about: Risk Assessment of GDM; Antenatal Care (Maternal and Fetal surveillance, Psychosocial support, Self-monitoring, Medical nutrition therapy, Physical activity); Pharmacological therapy; Birthing Care; Postpartum care.
7 Management of diabetes: A national clinical guideline [17] Scotland SIGN 2013 Evidence-based This guideline provides recommendations based on current evidence for best practice in the management of diabetes. “Management of diabetes in pregnancy” is one of updated chapters, which only contains a few recommendations about pre-pregnancy care, nutritional management, optimization of glycemic control, complication during pregnancy, fetal assessment, gestational diabetes, delivery, postnatal care.
8 Initiative on gestational diabetes mellitus: A pragmatic guide for diagnosis, management, and care [18] International FIGO 2015 Evidence-based To address the issue of GDM, FIGO recommends the following: Public health focus; Universal testing; Criteria for diagnosis; Diagnosis of GDM; Management of GDM; Lifestyle management; Pharmacological management; Postpartum follow-up and linkage to care.
9 Consensus Evidence-based Guidelines for Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in India [19] India API 2014 Evidence-based The guideline presents an overview of following consensus: Screening for GDM; Diagnostic criteria for GDM; Blood glucose targets and monitoring; Oral anti-diabetic drugs; Insulin therapy; Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.
10 Standards of medical care in diabetes −2018 [20] USA ADA 2018 Evidence-based It is a general Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. “Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy” is a chapter of this guideline, which include following relevant recommendations: Preconception counseling; Glycemic targets in pregnancy; Management of GDM; Pregnancy and drug consideration
11 Diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period [21] England NICE, NCC-WCH 2015 Evidence-based The guideline focus on Management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period: Preconception planning and care; Gestational diabetes; Antenatal care for women with diabetes; Intrapartum care; Postnatal care.
12 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) – Diagnosis, Treatment and Follow-Up. Guideline of the DDG and DGGG [29] Germany DDG, DGGG 2018 Evidence-based This guideline focus on: Screening and diagnosis; Treatment (First medical consultation after GDM diagnosis; Physical activity; Dietary counselling; Recommended weight gain; Blood glucose monitoring; Insulin therapy; Oral antidiabetic drugs and GLP-1 analogues); Obstetric care; Postpartum care.
13 Guidelines for the Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus [22] Hong Kong HKCOG 2016 Expert Consensus This is an Expert Consensus focus on:Diagnostic criteria and classification; Screening for hyperglycemia in pregnancy; Early detection of GDM and screening for pre-GDM in the first trimester; Management for hyperglycemia first detected in pregnancy; Postnatal management.
14 Diagnosis and Management of diabetes in pregnancy: A clinical practice guideline (2014) [23] China CMA 2014 Expert Consensus This is an Expert Consensus focus on:Diagnosis of GDM and PGDM; surveillance during pregnancy; counseling and treatment; Timing and mode of delivery; Postnatal management.