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Table 1 Prevalence rates and mean scores of study variables

From: Gestational weight gain, physical activity, sleep problems, substance use, and food intake as proximal risk factors of stress and depressive symptoms during pregnancy

  Cross-sectional Longitudinal
2nd trimester (N = 463) 2nd trimester (n = 349) 3rd trimester (n = 349)
Variable n M or n SD or % n M or n SD or % n M or n SD or %
Mental health problems
 Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9) 463 5.09 3.23 349 5.02 3.12 349 4.96 3.08
 Stress (PHQ-D) 463 4.00 3.04 349 3.86 2.93 349 3.27 2.81
Proximal risk factors
 Gestational weight gain (kg) 458 7.19 3.82 344 6.88 3.61
 Physical activity 342    275   
less than once a month   91 26.6   76 27.6    
once a month   48 14.0   36 13.1    
once a week   166 48.5   136 49.5
daily   37 10.8   27 9.8    
 Sleep problems (PSQI) 292 5.50 3.99 225 5.35 3.69
 Alcohol use 399    309   
non-drinker   293 73.4   221 71.5    
quitter   106 26.6   88 28.5    
drinker   0 0.0   0 0.0    
 Cigarette smoking 364    275   
non-smoker   296 81.3   224 81.5    
quitter   67 18.4   50 18.2    
smoker   1 0.3   1 0.4    
 Snack food intake (portion) 389 1.33 1.12 292 1.27 0.97
Covariates
 Age (years) 463 29.77 4.18 349 29.75 4.10
 Pregravid BMI (kg/m2) 463 23.50 4.29 349 23.38 4.31
 Pregnancy intention 463    349   
Pregnancy not planned   87 18.8   61 17.5    
Pregnancy planned   376 81.2   288 82.5    
  1. Note. n number of pregnant women included in the model. PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire - Depression. PHQ-D Patient Health Questionnaire - German version. BMI body mass index