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Table 2 Characteristics of Pregnant Women

From: Optimizing ultraviolet B radiation exposure to prevent vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women in the tropical zone: report from cohort study on vitamin D status and its impact during pregnancy in Indonesia

Characteristics Vitamin D status Total Mean (SD) p-value
Deficient Insufficient Normal
(n = 164) (n = 33) (n = 7)
Use of sunscreen       0.19
 No 145 26 7 178   
 Yes 19 7 0 26   
Age      28.4 (5.83) 0.27
  < 20 years 11 1 0 12   
 20–34 years 130 27 4 161   
  ≥ 35 years 23 5 3 31   
Education       < 0.001
 Elementary school 38 14 7 59   
 Middle school 45 12 0 57   
 High school 54 5 0 59   
 Diploma/bachelor 27 2 0 29   
Occupation       0.18
 Housewife 113 29 6 148   
 Civil servant 37 2 1 40   
 Others 14 2 0 16   
Pre-pregnancy body mass index (kg/m2)a      23.7 (4.84) 0.41
 Underweight (<  18.5) 14 2 1 17   
 Normal (18.5–24.99) 83 32 4 119   
 Overweight (25–29.99) 32 5 2 39   
 Obese (>  30) 25 4 0 29   
Parity       0.17
 0 70 10 0 80   
 1 54 13 4 71   
  ≥ 2 40 10 3 53   
Use of veil (hijab)       0.002
 No 77 25 6 108   
 Yes 87 8 1 96   
  1. P-value was calculated using Chi-square test.
  2. aBody mass index clasification by WHO 2018, available from http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.h