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Table 4 Effect of mode of conception on maternal/perinatal complications and adverse outcomes

From: Complications and adverse outcomes in pregnancy and childbirth among women who conceived by assisted reproductive technologies: a nationwide birth cohort study of Japan environment and children’s study

  Logistic regression with case-wise deletion of missing data Multiple imputation
Crude OR 95% CI aOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI
OI without ART
 Maternal outcomesa
  Placenta previa 0.76 0.43 1.31 0.62 0.35 1.09 0.85 0.55 1.32
  Placental abruption 1.33 0.82 2.18 1.33 0.80 2.19 1.13 0.71 1.81
  MAP 1.46 0.74 2.86 1.46 0.73 2.91 1.23 0.62 2.45
  Gestational diabetes 1.40 1.16 1.69 0.97 0.80 1.19 0.98 0.81 1.18
  PIH 1.55 1.30 1.84 1.10 0.91 1.32 1.11 0.94 1.31
  Cesarean section 1.41 1.29 1.53 1.12 0.99 1.26 1.08 0.97 1.21
  Blood transfusion 1.35 0.83 2.21 1.03 0.62 1.71 0.94 0.59 1.5
  ICU admission 2.16 1.04 4.46 1.29 0.60 2.79 1.07 0.49 2.3
 Fetal/neonatal outcomesb
  Preterm birth 1.93 1.71 2.18 1.05 0.09 1.24 1.01 0.86 1.18
  Low birth weight 1.88 1.70 2.07 1.04 0.93 1.19 1.04 0.93 1.17
Conventional IVT-ET
 Maternal outcomesa
  Placenta previa 4.68 3.22 6.82 2.90 1.94 4.34 2.86 1.99 4.12
  Placental abruption 1.03 0.43 2.50 0.91 0.37 2.26 1.08 0.53 2.22
  MAP 6.88 4.09 11.58 6.85 3.88 12.13 5.74 2.93 11.2
  Gestational diabetes 1.88 1.45 2.45 0.99 0.75 1.31 1.13 0.88 1.45
  PIH 2.43 1.94 3.05 1.40 1.10 1.78 1.41 1.13 1.76
  Cesarean section 2.69 2.39 3.02 1.85 1.58 2.17 1.9 1.64 2.19
  Blood transfusion 6.18 4.20 9.09 3.85 2.52 5.88 3.57 2.45 5.21
  ICU admission 4.98 2.30 10.80 2.58 1.11 6.01 2.04 0.89 4.66
 Fetal/neonatal outcomesb
  Preterm birth 2.59 2.18 3.08 1.42 1.13 1.78 1.36 1.11 1.66
  Low birth weight 1.90 1.63 2.22 0.94 0.76 1.15 1.01 0.85 1.2
ICSI
 Maternal outcomesa
  Placenta previa 3.37 2.22 5.11 2.01 1.29 3.13 2.02 1.36 3.01
  Placental abruption 2.44 1.40 4.26 2.16 1.20 3.88 2.35 1.44 3.82
  MAP 7.41 4.57 12.00 7.81 4.56 13.38 7.86 4.56 13.5
  Gestational diabetes 1.85 1.43 2.38 0.97 0.74 1.27 1.06 0.83 1.35
  PIH 2.16 1.73 2.71 1.25 0.98 1.60 1.34 1.07 1.67
  Cesarean section 2.75 2.46 3.07 1.89 1.62 2.19 1.82 1.59 2.09
  Blood transfusion 5.98 4.11 8.69 3.76 2.49 5.66 3.43 2.37 4.96
  ICU admission 7.11 3.78 13.36 3.45 1.68 7.06 3.87 2.07 7.24
 Fetal/neonatal outcomesb
  Preterm birth 2.33 1.96 2.77 1.31 1.05 1.64 1.21 0.99 1.47
  Low birth weight 1.78 1.53 2.07 0.87 0.72 1.06 0.89 0.74 1.06
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio, ART assisted reproductive technologies, CI confidence intervals, ICSI intracytoplasmic sperm injection, ICU intensive care unit, IVF-ET in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, MAP morbidly adherent placenta, OI ovulation induction, OR odds ratio, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension
  2. Women who conceived naturally served as the reference group
  3. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated by controlling for maternal age, maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, maternal height, maternal weight before delivery, parity, prior cesarean section, pre-existing maternal conditions, multiple pregnancies, fetal presentation, folic acid supplementation, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal drinking during pregnancy, maternal educational level, paternal smoking, paternal educational level, and household income
  4. alogistic regression; bgeneralized estimating equations (GEE)