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Table 1 Characteristics of deliveries with and without severe maternal morbidity, California, 2007–2014 (n = 3,556,205)

From: The contribution of maternal characteristics and cesarean delivery to an increasing trend of severe maternal morbidity

  Prevalence in deliveries with severe maternal morbidity
(n = 47,973)
No. (%)
Prevalence in deliveries without severe maternal morbidity
(n = 3,508,232)
No. (%)
Risk factors of interest – dichotomous
 Maternal age at delivery ≥35 years 11,173 (24) 639,568 (18)
 Pre-pregnancy obesity 10,610 (22) 741,309 (21)
 Pre-pregnancy comorbidity 6937 (15) 235,128 (7)
 Cesarean delivery 29,532 (62) 1,143,410 (33)
Risk factors of interest – multiple categories
 Maternal age at delivery (years)
   < 20 4504 (9) 281,469 (8)
  20–24 9396 (20) 731,140 (21)
  25–29 11,077 (23) 939,816 (27)
  30–34 11,823 (25) 916,240 (26)
  35–39 8188 (17) 509,148 (15)
   ≥ 40 2985 (6) 130,420 (4)
 Pre-pregnancy BMI group
  Underweight 2092 (4) 141,100 (4)
  Normal weight 22,902 (48) 1,717,722 (49)
  Overweight 12,369 (26) 907,102 (26)
  Obesity Class 1 6111 (13) 446,573 (13)
  Obesity Class 2 2660 (6) 185,634 (5)
  Obesity Class 3 1839 (4) 109,102 (3)
 Pre-pregnancy comorbidity
  Pre-pregnancy hypertension 2319 (5) 60,222 (2)
  Pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus 1225 (3) 39,299 (4)
  Asthma 2613 (5) 125,423 (4)
  Other comorbidity1 2116 (15) 26,159 (7)
 Delivery method
  Vaginal without induction 14,190 (39) 1,955,468 (63)
  Vaginal with induction 4251 (12) 409,355 (13)
  Primary cesarean without induction 5977 (16) 169,941 (6)
  Primary cesarean with induction 1366 (4) 37,317 (1)
  Repeat cesarean 11,053 (30) 542,575 (17)
Sociodemographic factors
 Maternal education
  Did not complete high school 12,399 (26) 795,985 (23)
  High school graduate or GED completed 12,659 (26) 914,409 (26)
  Some college – no degree 11,335 (24) 867,550 (25)
  College degree or higher 11,580 (24) 930,289 (27)
 Private health insurance 21,016 (44) 1,672,011 (48)
 Maternal race/ethnicity
  U.S.-born Hispanic/Latina 12,915 (27) 904,233 (26)
  Foreign-born Hispanic/Latina 12,418 (26) 903,320 (26)
  Non-Hispanic White 10,418 (22) 928,670 (26)
  Asian/Pacific Islander 6105 (13) 438,649 (13)
  Non-Hispanic Black 3852 (8) 176,510 (5)
  Other 2265 (5) 156,851 (5)
 Obstetric history
  Primiparous 21,134 (44) 1,391,190 (40)
  Multiparous without prior cesarean 15,617 (33) 1,535,819 (44)
  Multiparous with prior cesarean 11,222 (23) 581,224 (17)
 Twin/multiple birth 54,189 (2) 3114 (6)
 Preterm birth (< 37 weeks) 261,427 (7) 10,896 (23)
 Placenta previa or abruption 5199 (11) 56,171 (2)
 Preeclampsia 7116 (15) 116,198 (3)
  1. BMI, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); GED, general educational development
  2. 1Other comorbidity includes pulmonary hypertension, sickle cell disease, chronic renal disease, chronic ischemic heart disease, congenital heart disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, human immunodeficiency virus, cardiac valvular disease, and chronic congestive heart failure [26]
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