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Table 2 Attempted assisted vaginal delivery in relation to pre-pregnancy body weight and participant characteristics among laboring women in need of operative delivery assistance (N = 2282). Percentage represents the total number for each category in the final study group

From: Effects of maternal obesity on the success of assisted vaginal delivery in Chinese women

Characteristics Attempted vacuum Attempted Forceps
N (%) Crude OR [95% CI] Adjusted OR [95% CI] N (%) Crude OR [95% CI] Adjusted OR [95% CI]
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
 Normal Weight (18.5 to < 23.0) 777 (37.7) Reference Reference 623 (30.2) Reference Reference
 Overweight (23.0–27.5) 145 (40.2) 0.87 [0.72–0.99] 0.88 [0.69–0.98] 131 (36.3) 0.79 [0.69–0.99] 0.76 [0.68–0.98]
 Obese (≥27.5) 304 (48.3) 0.43 [0.36–0.67]* 0.42 [0.32–0.72]* 302 (48.1) 0.38 [0.31–0.59]* 0.34 [0.29–0.52]*
Age (years)
 < 20 years 88 (39.6) 1.08 [1.02–1.14] 1.15 [1.08–1.44] 78 (35.1) 0.99 [0.87–1.13] 1.08 [0.98–1.13]
 20–24 years 202 (40.6) Reference Reference 174 (35.8) Reference Reference
 25–29 years 354 (40.4) 0.99 [0.84–1.20] 0.97 [0.79–1.31] 305 (34.8) 0.92 [0.76–1.10] 0.93 [0.85–1.03]
 30–35 years 368 (40.3) 0.88 [0.69–1.14] 0.89 [0.74–1.12] 315 (34.5) 0.89 [0.79–1.09] 0.88 [0.77–1.12]
 > 35 years 214 (39.8) 0.98 [0.77–1.31] 0.98 [0.79–1.18] 184 (34.4) 0.99 [0.84–1.03] 0.98 [0.85–1.09]
Smoking Cigarettes
 No smoking 1135 (40.7) 0.98 [0.66–1.24]   969 (34.9) 0.89 [0.67–1.16]  
 Smoking 91 (34.8) Reference   87 (32.5) Reference  
Diabetes (Type 1, 2, GDM)
 Not Diabetes 1128 (39.7) Reference Reference 981 (34..6) Reference Reference
 Diabetes 98 (50.5) 0.51 [0.33–0.75]* 0.55 [0.35–0.88]* 75 (38.6) 0.68 [0.56–0.78]* 0.64 [0.54–0.76]*
Hypertension (chronic, pregnancy-induced, preeclampsia)
 Not hypertension 1150 (37.7) Reference   987 (40.6) Reference  
 Hypertension 79 (38.3) 0.88 [0.62–1.15]   74 (37.2) 0.83 [0.61–1.16]  
Received Prenatal care
 No 17 (45.0) 1.48 [0.44–4.09]   19 (39.0) 1.48 [0.49–5.01]  
 Yes 1212 (40.2) Reference   1042 (38.2) Reference  
Induction
 No 401 (44.7) Reference Reference 304 (34.2) Reference Reference
 Yes 828 (54.9) 1.61 [1.08–2.81]* 1.77 [1.00–2.87]* 757 (45.5) 1.63 [1.08–2.83]* 1.71 [1.00–2.87]*
Epidural Anesthesia
 No 205 (15.5) Reference Reference 135 (10.7) Reference Reference
 Yes 1024 (30.9) 1.26 [0.86–1.68]* 1.62 [1.12–2.39]* 926 (28.6) 1.31 [0.96–1.78]* 1.78 [1.02–2.44]*
Adherence to 2009 IOM guideline
 Inadequate 108 (88.3) 1.65 [1.10–2.41]* 1.81 [1.15–2.83]* 87 (88.1) 1.69 [1.10–2.53]* 1.88 [1.11–2.92]*
 Appropriate 746 (82.1) Reference Reference 716 (83.1) Reference Reference
 Excessive 345 (25.1) 0.62 [0.41–0.79]* 0.72 [0.59–1.05]* 268 (20.3) 0.61 [0.51–0.87]* 0.69 [0.59–1.01]*
Estimated Gestational age (weeks)
 EGA ≥34 – < 37 61 (51.2) Reference   58 (47.1) Reference  
 EGA 37+ 1168 (50.1) 0.89 [0.50–1.31]   1003 (48.9) 0.91 [0.60–1.51]  
Neonate weight
 LGA 182 (50.7) 3.11 [1.81–5.25]* 3.24 [1.93–6.33]* 156 (48.1) 3.28 [1.80–5.49]* 3.55 [1.91–6.03]*
 AGA 982 (38.8) Reference Reference 859 (39.6) Reference Reference
 SGA 65 (23.1) 0.22 [0.18–0.41]* 0.25 [0.18–0.40]* 46 (19.3) 0.29 [0.20–0.40]* 0.28 [0.18–0.45]*
  1. Adjusted for: age category, smoking, hypertension, prenatal care, epidural, adherence to GWG, race, marital status, parity, diabetes, induction, augmentation, and estimated gestational age
  2. *Significant Odds Ratios at the p < 0.05 level
  3. GDM (Gestational Diabetes Mellitus), GWG (Gestational Weight Gain), IOM (Institute of Medicine), SGA (Small for Gestational Age), AGA (Appropriate of Gestational Age), LGA (Large for Gestational Age)