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Table 2 Pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval of gestational diabetes according to the risk factors

From: Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable N Exposure in GDM Total GDM Exposure in Non-GDM Total Non-GDM OR 95% CI I2, % P-value
History of previous GDM 24 343 3246 272 20,646 8.42 5.35–13.23 80.92 < 0.001
History of congenital anomalies 6 32 655 50 3262 4.25 1.52–11.88 64.64 0.015
History of macrosomia 29 397 4275 1001 29,506 4.41 3.09–6.31 81.14 < 0.001
BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 33 13,304 42,306 80,126 582,707 3.27 2.81–3.80 93.49 < 0.001
PIH 12 163 1891 612 18,468 3.2 2.19–4.68 68.96 < 0.001
Family History of Diabetes 60 3177 11,068 12,336 94,962 2.77 2.22–3.47 93.76 < 0.001
History of stillbirth 25 261 2786 1158 21,257 2.39 1.68–3.40 75.38 < 0.001
PCOS 7 2424 113,827 26,777 1,566,026 2.33 1.72–3.17 94.07 < 0.001
History of abortion 19 803 2658 2404 16,844 2.25 1.54–3.29 91.37 < 0.001
Age ≥ 25 34 226,788 354,080 2,637,545 4,798,678 2.17 1.96–2.41 96.91 < 0.001
Multiparity ≥2 32 21,069 31,901 290,125 434,198 1.37 1.34–1.52 86.55 < 0.001
History of preterm delivery 9 230 2274 837 12,748 1.93 1.21–3.07 76.09 < 0.001
History of neonatal death 5 26 550 58 1593 1.8 0.86–3.79 43.29 0.133
Illiteracy 7 118 2919 604 10,372 1.29 0.82–2.04 65.63 0.008
Current smoking 8 1257 14,162 18,924 213,495 1.04 0.98–1.11 0 0.93
Current drinking 5 30 2422 916 38,433 0.79 0.54–1.14 0 0.66
Primigravida 18 7363 8753 38,871 47,228 0.55 0.41–0.73 85.99 < 0.001