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Table 1 Pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval of gestational diabetes by subgroup analysis

From: Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable N Total sample size Total GDM Prevalence, % 95% CI P-value I2, %
Country
 Taiwan 1 132 51 38.6 30.3–46.9 NA NA
 Hong Kong 1 520 169 32.5 28.5–36.5 NA NA
 Saudi Arabia 7 13,865 3192 22.9 12.9–32.9 99.51 < 0.0001
 Vietnam 2 5474 1224 22.3 18.4–26.2 91.94 < 0.0001
 Malaysia 2 2136 359 18.5 6.2–30.8 97.97 < 0.0001
 Singapore 1 909 160 17.6 15.1–20.1 NA NA
 Thailand 4 24,168 1872 17.1 6.3–27.8 99.11 < 0.0001
 Iran 9 9872 1146 14.9 10.2–19.6 98.58 < 0.0001
 Qatar 2 2205 323 13.3 7.4–19.3 93.54 < 0.0001
 China 8 156,942 11,394 12.6 8.6–16.7 99.78 < 0.0001
 Sri lanka 4 3577 380 11.4 5.1–17.8 97.93 < 0.0001
 South Korea 3 1,316,307 98,845 10.5 5.8–15.3 99.87 < 0.0001
 India 24 17,049 1679 8.8 6.7–10.9 96.57 < 0.0001
 Bangladesh 3 2785 226 8.2 6 l.0–10.5 71.61 0.03
 Pakistan 2 1642 127 7.7 6.4–9.0 0 0.752
 Turkmenistan 1 1620 109 6.7 5.5–7.9 NA NA
 Israel 3 737,978 36,822 5.3 3.7–7.0 99.89 < 0.0001
 Yemen 1 311 16 5.1 2.7–6.6 NA NA
 Japan 4 15,109 390 2.8 1.9–3.7 84.4 < 0.0001
 Nepal 2 2162 26 1.5 0.2–3.2 84.13 0.012
 Subtotal 84 2,314,763 158,510 11.5 10.9–12.1 99.57 < 0.0001
Diagnostic criteria
 IADPSG 13 42,317 5148 20.9 17.3–24.6 99.17 < 0.0001
 CHINA MOH 1 14,986 2987 19.9 19.3–20.6 NA NA
 ADA 13 379,583 15,501 13.9 11.5–16.2 98.68 < 0.0001
 WHO 23 134,152 9750 13 9.6–16.4 99.38 < 0.0001
 DIPSI 12 9879 1114 8.3 5.7–10.9 94.76 < 0.0001
 CC 13 384,146 23,714 7.6 6.6–8.7 99 < 0.0001
 NDDG 4 31,734 1577 4.3 1.4–7.3 99.2 < 0.0001
 CC&WHO 1 2000 75 3.7 2.9–4.6 NA NA
 ICD-10 1 1,306,281 98,403 3.7 1.2–6.2 NA NA
 JDS 3 9685 241 3.6 1.2–6.0 88.33 < 0.0001
 Subtotal 84 2,314,763 158,510 11.5 10.9–12.1 99.59 < 0.0001
Setting
 Hospital 71 423,878 31,598 12.1 11–13.1 99.34 < 0.0001
 Community 13 1,890,885 126,912 11.1 9.8–12.5 99.87 < 0.0001
 Subgroup 84 2,314,763 158,510 11.5 10.9–12.1 99.59 < 0.0001
Screening Methods
 One-step 53 631,808 38,515 14.7 13.5–15.9 99.5 < 0.0001
 Not stated 1 1,306,281 98,403 7.5 7.5–7.6 NA NA
 Two-steps 30 376,674 21,592 7.2 6.4–8.0 98.82 < 0.0001
 Subtotal 84 2,314,763 158,510 11.5 10.9–12.1 99.57 < 0.0001