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Table 5 Frequency of intake of different vegetables and risk of SGA

From: Maternal dietary consumption of legumes, vegetables and fruit during pregnancy, does it protect against small for gestational age?

Frequency of intake Cases n (%) Controls n (%) OR (95% CI) aORa (95% CI)
Swiss chard
 Never 128 (24.7) 110 (21.2) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 2 times per week 79 (15.3) 72 (13.9) 0.91 (0.60–1.39) 0.88 (0.55–1.39)
Cabbage
 Never 234 (45.2) 220 (42.5) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 2 times per week 44 (8.5) 41 (7.9) 1.01 (0.63–1.58) 0.94 (0.57–1.55)
Lettuce
 Never 40 (7.7) 33 (6.4) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 5 times per week 141 (27.2) 122 (23.6) 0.94 (0.56–1.60) 0.83 (0.46–1.51)
Tomato
 Never 50 (9.7) 40 (7.7) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 5 times per week ek 193 (37.3) 177 (34.2) 0.86 (0.53–1.40) 1.02 (0.60–1.75)
Carrot
 Never 97 (18.7) 68 (13.1) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 5 times per week 74 (14.3) 60 (11.6) 0.88 (0.56–1.39) 0.90 (0.55–1.48)
Green bean
 Never 124 (23.9) 90 (17.4) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ever 398 (76.1) 428 (82.6) 0.66 (0.49–0.90) 0.55 (0.38–0.90)
Eggplants
 Never 71 (13.7) 57 (11.0) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 2 times per week 70 (13.5) 87 (16.8) 0.63 (0.38–1.02) 0.59 (0.34–1.01)
Pepper
 Never 102 (19.7) 93 (18.0) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 2 times per week 96 (18.5) 105 (20.3) 0.83 (0.56–1.24) 0.77 (0.50–1.20)
Asparagus
 Never 191 (36.9) 163 (31.5) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 2 times per week 36 (7.0) 48 (9.3) 0.64 (0.39–1.03) 0.53 (0.31–0.89)
Cold vegetable soup (Spanish ‘gazpacho’)
 Never 196 (37.8) 169 (32.6) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 2 times per week 44 (8.5) 41 (7.9) 0.91 (0.58–1.46) 0.75 (0.45–1.24)
Onion
 Never 78 (15.1) 73 (14.1) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 5 times per week 159 (30.7) 117 (22.6) 1.32 (0.89–1.96) 1.26 (0.81–1.97)
Garlic
Never 104 (20.1) 75 (14.5) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ever 414 (79.9) 443 (75.5) 0.68 (0.49–0.94) 0.67 (0.46–0.97)
Mushrooms
 Never 139 (26.8) 126 (24.3) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 vs. ≥ 2 times per week 36 (7.0) 32 (6.2) 1.01 (0.59–1.74) 0.90 (0.48–1.67)
Total amount of vegetables (g/day), quintiles
 Q1 (≤ 228.9) 122 (23.6) 104 (20.1) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 Q2 (229.0–329.1) 89 (17.2) 104 (20.1) 0.72 (0.49–1.07) 0.75 (0.48–1.15)
 Q3 (329.2–432.5) 90 (17.4) 103 (19.9) 0.72 (0.49–1.08) 0.75 (0.48–1.15)
 Q4 (432.6–573.0) 96 (18.5) 104 (20.1) 0.77 (0.53–1.13) 0.80 (0.53–1.22)
 Q5 (>  573.0) 121 (23.4) 103 (19.9) 0.99 (0.69–1.44) 0.91 (0.60–1.39)
 P for trend 0.177 0.401
  1. a Adjusted for preeclampsia, education, smoking, gain weight per week during pregnancy, fish intake and previous preterm/low birthweight newborn