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Table 5 Interaction between ART and GDM in obstetrics and perinatal outcomes

From: Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of singleton pregnancies conceived via assisted reproductive technology complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

Variables ART vs. Non-ART GDM vs. Non-GDM
Obstetrics outcomes
 PIH, adjusted OR (95% CI) 2.09 (1.05–4.14)* 2.68 (1.38–5.20)*
 Preeclampsia, adjusted OR (95% CI) 3.40 (1.34–8.66)* 1.77 (0.76–4.12)
 Antepartum hemorrhage, adjusted OR (95% CI) 2.04(1.01–4.11)* 1.64(0.86-3.13)
 Emergency CS, adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.28 (0.82–1.99) 2.07 (1.35–3.17)*
Perinatal outcomes
 Preterm birth, adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.71(0.87–3.36) 2.36(1.24–4.49)*
 IUGR, adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.65(0.79–3.44) 1.53(0.77–3.01)
 Small for gestational age, adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.47(0.82–2.64) 0.90(0.52–1.55)
 Large for gestational age, adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.21(0.43–3.38) 3.45(1.20–9.96)*
 Macrosomia, adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77(0.26–2.33) 1.5(0.57–4.32)
 Low birth weight, adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.63(0.77–3.46) 1.78(0.88–3.60)
 NICU admission, adjusted OR (95% CI) 2.64(1.41–4.94)* 1.68(0.95-2.94)
 Respiratory distress, adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.73(0.38–1.42) 1.35(0.73–2.50)
 Neonatal hypoglycemia, adjusted OR (95% CI) 2.86(1.12–7.30)* 2.36(1.00-5.57)*
 Perinatal mortality, adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.59 (0.29–8.70) 6.97(0.81–59.58)
  1. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, SC spontaneous conception, ART assisted reproductive technology, PIH pregnancy induced hypertension, IUGR Intrauterine growth restriction, NICU neonatal intensive care unit
  2. OR Crude Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  3. ORs were adjusted for age, parity and pre-pregnancy body mass index
  4. *P < 0.05 was considered significant