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Table 3 Risk of perinatal and neonatal complications among study groups

From: Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of singleton pregnancies conceived via assisted reproductive technology complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

Variables ART
(n = 125)
ART-GDM
(n = 135)
SC-GDM
(n = 152)
SC
(n = 162)
Preterm Birth (PTB), n (%) 9 (7.2) 23 (17.3) 13 (8.7) 7 (4.3)
 OR (95% CI) 1.71 (0.62–4.72) 4.60 (1.90–11.10)* 2.09 (0.81–5.38) Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.53 (0.54–4.35) 3.89 (1.51–10.10)* 2.13 (0.81–5.63) Ref. group
IUGR n (%) 12 (9.6) 14 (10.8) 10 (6.7) 5 (3.1)
 OR (95% CI) 3.27 (1.12–9.55) 3.72 (1.30–10.61) 2.20 (0.73–6.59) Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 2.63 (0.88–7.89) 2.92 (0.96–8.93) 2.57 (0.83–7.93) Ref. group
Small for gestational age (SGA), n (%) 18 (14.4) 20 (15.3) 9 (6.0) 18 (11.2)
 OR (95% CI) 1.34 (0.66–2.69) 1.43 (0.72–2.83) 0.51 (0.22–1.17) Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.14 (0.55–2.37) 1.34 (0.62–2.87) 0.62 (0.27–1.46) Ref. group
Large for gestational age (LGA), n (%) 3 (2.4) 7 (5.3) 9 (6.0) 2 (1.2)
 OR (95% CI) 1.95 (0.32–11.88) 4.49 (0.92–21.98) 5.07 (1.08–23.88)* Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 2.19 (0.34–14.03) 5.08 (0.92–28.15) 5.20(1.07–25.20)* Ref. group
Macrosomia n (%) 3 (2.4) 4 (3.1) 7 (4.7) 4 (2.5)
 OR (95% CI) 0.97 (0.21–4.39) 1.25 (0.31–5.08) 1.92 (0.55–6.70) Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.21–4.90) 1.21 (0.26–5.66) 1.88 (0.51–6.83) Ref. group
Low birth weight (LBW), n (%) 10 (8.0) 16 (12.2) 8 (5.3) 5 (3.1)
 OR (95% CI) 2.7 (0.90–8.15) 4.34 (1.55–12.19)* 1.76 (0.56–5.50) Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.99 (0.65–6.08) 3.11 (1.04–9.30)* 2.23 (0.70–7.14) Ref. group
NICU admission n (%) 18 (14.4) 27 (20.8) 12 (8.0) 9 (5.6)
 OR (95% CI) 2.82 (1.22–6.52)* 4.40 (1.99–9.74)* 1.46 (0.60–3.57) Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 2.53 (1.05–6.09)* 4.36 (1.82–10.45)* 1.59 (0.64–3.97) Ref. group
Respiratory distress n (%) 7 (5.6) 15 (11.5) 12 (8.1) 15 (9.3)
 OR (95% CI) 0.58 (0.23–1.46) 1.27 (0.60–2.70) 0.85 (0.39–1.89) Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.48 (0.18–1.26) 1.02 (0.44–2.34) 0.96(0.42–2.18) Ref. group
Neonatal hypoglycemia, n (%) 4(3.2) 15(11.5) 5(3.3) 5(3.1)
 OR (95% CI) 1.02(0.27–3.90) 4.04(1.43–11.45)* 1.07(0.30-3.77) Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.17(0.29–4.72) 4.91(1.50–16.07)* 0.94(0.24-3.70) Ref. group
Perinatal mortality, n (%) 0 5(3.7) 2(1.3) 1(0.6)
 OR (95% CI) 1 6.19(0.71–53.66) 2.15(0.19–23.92) Ref. group
 Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1 5.56(0.55–56.65) 2.23(0.19–25.87) Ref. group
  1. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, SC spontaneous conception, ART assisted reproductive technology, PIH pregnancy induced hypertension, IUGR Intrauterine growth restriction; NICU neonatal intensive care unit
  2. OR Crude Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  3. ORs were adjusted for maternal age, parity and pre-pregnancy BMI
  4. Ref. means reference group
  5. *P < 0.05 was considered significant