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Table 2 Antibiotic use in pregnancy and the risks of childhood asthma stratified by feeding pattern within the first 6 months of life

From: The effect of breastfeeding on the risk of asthma in high-risk children: a case-control study in Shanghai, China

Exposure categories Case N (%) Control N (%) OR (95% CI) aORa (95% CI)
Using antibiotics in pregnancyb (n = 1498)
 No 589 (92.9) 834 (96.5) ref ref
 Yes 45 (7.1) 30 (3.5) 2.1 (1.3–3.4) 1.7 (1.0–2.9)
Among children exclusively breastfed within the first 6 months of life (n = 796)
 No antibiotic use in pregnancy 318 (96.1) 452 (97.2) ref ref
 Using antibiotics in pregnancy 13 (3.9) 13 (2.8) 1.4 (0.7–3.1) 0.9 (0.4–2.1)
Among children non-exclusively breastfed within the first 6 months of life (n = 702)
 No antibiotic use in pregnancy 271 (89.4) 382 (95.7) ref ref
 Using antibiotics in pregnancy 32 (10.6) 17 (4.3) 2.7 (1.4–4.9) 2.6 (1.3–5.1)
  1. aadjusted for maternal age at delivery (years), maternal education level (≤9, 10–12, 13–16, ≥17, unknown), child age (years), child gender (female, male), gestational age at birth (weeks), delivery modes (cesarean delivery, virginal delivery), family history of allergic disorders (no, yes, unknown)
  2. badjusted for exclusive breastfeeding within the first 6 months of life (no, yes) additionally
  3. OR: odds ratios
  4. aOR: adjusted odds ratios