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Table 2 Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes (N = 1300)

From: Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus: findings from a universal screening feasibility program in Lima, Peru

Characteristics Crude OR (95%CI) Age and family history of diabetes adjusted OR (95%CI)a Multivariate OR (95%CI)b
Maternal age (years) 1.03 (1.01–1.06) 1.03 (1.00–1.06)
Ethnicity
 Mestizo Reference Reference Reference
 Other 1.02 (0.35–3.00) 1.05 (0.35–3.10) 1.01 (0.34–3.02)
Marital status
 Married or living with partner Reference Reference Reference
 Single or living alone/divorced 1.01 (0.66–1.56) 1.10 (0.70–1.71) 1.04 (0.66–1.66)
Maternal education (years)
 ≤6 Reference Reference Reference
 7–12 1.23 (0.47–3.22) 0.79 (0.3–2.11) 1.13 (0.42–3.03)
 > 12 1.35 (0.51–3.53) 0.92 (0.69–1.27) 1.13 (0.41–3.10)
Partner education (years)
 ≤6 Reference Reference Reference
 7–12 1.55 (0.46–5.21) 0.52 (0.15–1.76) 1.72 (0.50–5.88)
 > 12 1.88 (0.56–6.34) 0.85 (0.63–1.16) 1.98 (0.57–6.86)
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
 < 25 (normal weight) Reference Reference Reference
 25–29.9 (overweight) 0.93 (0.67–1.31) 0.86 (0.61–1.21) 0.90 (0.63–1.27)
 ≥30 (obese) 1.49 (0.95–2.33) 1.22 (0.76–1.95) 1.29 (0.80–2.07)
Mid-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
 < 25 (normal weight) Reference Reference Reference
 25–29.9 (overweight) 1.28 (0.87–1.90) 1.18 (0.79–1.77) 1.23 (0.82–1.87)
 ≥30 (obese) 1.83 (1.19–2.81) 1.54 (0.98–2.41) 1.64 (1.03–2.61)
P-value for trend    0.033
Family history of diabetes
 No/Don’t know Reference Reference
 Yes 1.53 (1.13–2.07) 1.51 (1.10–2.07)
Depression
 No Reference Reference Reference
 Yes 1.52 (1.09–2.12) 1.53 (1.09–2.14) 1.54 (1.09–2.17)
Perceived health during pregnancy
 Excellent Reference Reference Reference
 Very good 0.47 (.13–1.74) 0.52 (0.14–1.93) 0.62 (0.16–2.34)
 Good 0.70 (0.23–2.18) 0.75 (0.24–2.35) 0.89 (0.28–2.82)
 Fair 0.62 (0.20–1.92) 0.63 (0.20–1.97) 0.69 (0.22–2.21)
 Poor 0.73 (0.20–2.75) 0.73 (0.19–2.76) 0.76 (0.20–2.92)
Difficulty paying for basics
 Very hard/hard Reference Reference Reference
 Somewhat hard 1.19 (0.74–1.91) 1.24 (0.77–1.99) 1.18 (0.73–1.93)
 Not very hard 1.16 (0.74–1.82) 1.25 (0.79–1.97) 1.19 (0.74–1.91)
  1. aAdjusted for age (continuous) and family history of diabetes mellitus among first degree-relatives (yes vs. no/don’t know)
  2. bMain multivariate regression model adjusted for all characteristics (maternal age, ethnicity, marital status, maternal education, paternal education, mid-pregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, depression, perceived health during pregnancy, and difficulty paying for the basics) except pre-pregnancy BMI and OR (95%CI) from this model are reported here. A second multivariate regression model adjusted for all covariates except mid-pregnancy BMI and the OR (95%CI) for pre-pregnancy BMI is reported from this model