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Table 2 Simple binary logistic regression for the predictors associated with cesarean section among women aged 15–49 years

From: Factors associated with caesarean deliveries among child-bearing women in Pakistan: secondary analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Survey, 2012–13

Socio-demographic characteristics Delivery by caesarean (weighted percentage) OR 95% CI p-value1
No Yes
Mother’s age at birth (in years)
 Less than 18 92.8 7.2 1   
 18–20 88.1 11.9 1.658 1.307–2.103 < 0.001
 21–24 81.1 18.9 2.743 2.231–3.372 < 0.001
 More than 24 72.4 27.6 5.001 4.041–6.187 < 0.001
Children birth order
 More than 6 93.9 6.1 1   
 1 74.5 25.5 5.059 3.953–6.475 < 0.001
 2–3 80.4 19.6 3.425 2.706–4.334 < 0.001
 4–5 89.5 10.5 1.558 1.189–2.042 < 0.001
Mother’s education
 No education 92.5 7.5 1   
 Primary 82.9 17.1 2.661 2.150–3.294 < 0.001
 Middle 78.7 21.3 3.519 2.737–4.523 < 0.001
 Secondary 68.5 31.5 5.221 4.262–6.397 < 0.001
 Higher 59.8 40.2 7.860 6.509–9.492 < 0.001
Mother’s occupation
 Not working 81.9 18.1 1   
 Unskilled 88.6 11.4 0.759 0.599–0.962 0.023
 Skilled 94.7 5.3 0.355 0.248–0.507 < 0.001
 Professional/Technical/Managerial 70.0 30.0 2.147 1.527–3.020 < 0.001
Wealth index
 Poorest 94.5 5.5 1   
 Poorer 93.0 7.0 1.622 1.167–2.255 < 0.001
 Middle 88.1 11.9 2.456 1.801–3.348 < 0.001
 Richer 76.4 23.6 5.487 4.123–7.303 < 0.001
 Richest 64.7 35.3 11.421 8.681–15.03 < 0.001
Type of residence
 Rural 88.5 11.5 1   
 Urban 74.4 25.6 2.425 2.115–2.780 < 0.001
Region
 Islamabad Capital Territory 71.9 28.1 1   
 Punjab 80.9 19.1 0.709 0.563–0.894 < 0.001
 Sindh 82.6 17.4 0.655 0.516–0.832 < 0.001
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 94.8 5.2 0.203 0.153–0.269 < 0.001
 Baluchistan 98.3 1.7 0.061 0.039–0.095 < 0.001
 Gilgit Baltistan 96.4 3.6 0.156 0.106–0.229 < 0.001
Pregnancy complication
 No 85.1 14.9 1   
 Yes 74.8 25.2 1.677 1.453–1.936 < 0.001
Antenatal care utilization
 None 97.9 22.1 1   
 1–3 89.3 10.7 6.212 4.147–9.307 < 0.001
 More than 4 69.9 30.1 25.401 17.219–37.471 < 0.001
Place of delivery  
 Public 71.1 28.9 1   
 Private 68.8 31.2 1.326 1.140–1.543 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: 1 reference category, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. 1By using Χ2 test