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Table 3 Quality appraisal using CASP checklist for cohort studies

From: A systematic review of non-antibiotic measures for the prevention of urinary tract infections in pregnancy

CASP cohort study checklist
  Elzayat et al. 2017 [26] Baertschi et al. 2003 [29] Ordzhonikidze et al. 2009 [32]
Did the study address a clearly focused issue? Yes Yes Yes
Was the cohort recruited in an acceptable way? Yes Yes Can’t tell
Was the exposure accurately measured to minimise bias? Yes Yes Can’t tell
Was the outcome accurately measured to minimise bias? Yes Yes Can’t tell
(a) Have the authors identified all important confounding factors? Yes Yes Yes
(b) Have they taken account of the confounding factors in the design and/or analysis? Yes Yes Yes
(a) Was the follow up of subjects complete enough? Not applicable Yes Yes
(b) Was the follow up of subjects long enough? Not applicable Yes Yes
How precise are the results? Can’t tell (no CI given) Can’t tell (no CI given) Can’t tell (no CI given)
Do you believe the results? Yes Yes Yes
Can the results be applied to the local population? Yes Yes No (study population not clearly defined)
Do the results of this study fit with other available evidence? Yes Yes Yes
Does the study have implications for practice? Yes Yes Yes
  1. CI Confidence interval. Significance: p ≤ 0.05