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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by HIV status

From: Patterns of caesarean section in HIV infected and non-infected women in Malawi: is caesarean section used for PMTCT?

Item All women
(n = 62,033)
Women with unknown HIV status (n = 5741) HIV negative women
(n = 33,099)
HIV positive women
(n = 23,193)
Total Weighted % Total Weighted % Total Weighted % Total Weighted %
Year of admission 2010 10,526 20.8 675 18.4 4272 20.9 5579 24.1
2011 16,216 30.9 1647 38.2 7056 29.4 7513 32.4
`2012 16,749 22.6 1888 23.6 9889 22.5 4972 21.4
2013 18,542 25.8 1531 19.9 11,882 27.2 5129 22.1
Maternal complication None 52,992 86.8 4674 82.4 28,932 88.0 19,386 83.6
Hemorrhage 1566 2.0 173 2.9 621 1.7 772 3.3
OPL 2899 4.3 312 5.0 1413 4.7 1175 5.1
Preeclampsia 511 0.8 78 1.2 260 0.7 173 0.7
Sepsis 101 0.1 13 0.3 21 0.1 67 0.3
RU 161 0.2 28 0.5 68 0.2 65 0.3
Unspecified 3275 5.0 386 6.4 1610 4.7 1278 5.5
Unknown 528 0.7 77 1.4 174 0.5 277 1.2
Infant complication None 51,017 85.8 4691 82.1 28,892 87.6 17,435 75.2
Prematurity 2609 3.6 281 4.7 1163 3.3 1156 5.0
LBW 2166 3.0 261 4.8 844 2.5 1073 4.6
Asphyxia 2140 3.4 246 3.9 1158 3.3 732 3.2
Unspecified 1683 2.6 197 3.3 811 2.4 675 2.9
Unknown 2418 1.6 65 1.2 231 0.8 2122 9.1
No of previous deliveries 0 14,446 29.1 1738 30.6 10,125 30.8 2583 11.1
1 12,554 21.2 1138 19.9 7314 21.8 4102 17.7
2–3 19,780 28.0 1505 26.2 8856 26.9 9419 40.6
> 3 14,554 20.5 1180 20.4 6523 19.6 6851 29.5
Unknown 699 1.2 180 2.9 281 0.9 238 1.0
Age in years < 20 11,191 23.0 1428 26.3 8217 24.4 1546 6.7
20–24 17,485 31.0 1738 30.5 10,491 32.0 5256 22.7
25–29 14,003 20.0 1035 17.1 6374 19.5 6595 28.4
30–34 10,960 13.9 740 12.5 4389 12.9 58,31 25.1
> 34 7288 10.2 583 9.8 3094 9.6 3610 15.6
Unknown 1106 1.9 217 4.0 534 1.6 355 1.5
Singleton Yes 59,862 96.6 5519 96.1 32,068 96.7 22,274 96.0
No 2171 3.4 222 3.9 1031 3.3 919 4.0
ARVs during pregnancy None, HIV+ 11,938 4.3 N/A 11,938 51.5
<4wks 2716 1.0 2716 11.7
≥4wks 8539 3.1 8539 36.8
None, HIV- 38,840 91.6 N/A
Facility ownership Government 55,583 89.6 5476 95.3 29,447 88.1 20,660 89.1
CHAM 6450 10.4 265 4.7 3652 11.9 2533 10.9
Facility location Rural 47,215 80.4 4936 86.2 26,660 80.8 15,619 67.3
Urban 14,818 19.6 805 13.8 6439 19.2 7574 32.7
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio, OPL obstructed/prolonged labor, RU Ruptured Uterus, LBW Low Birth Weight, ARVs antiretrovirals, CHAM Christian Health Association of Malawi