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Table 1 Refined Theoretical Domains Framework adapted from Cane et al. 2012 [19] and Atkins et al. 2017 [20]

From: Enablers and barriers for women with gestational diabetes mellitus to achieve optimal glycaemic control – a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework

Theoretical Domains Generic Definitions Constructs
Knowledge An awareness of the existence of something - Knowledge (including knowledge of condition/scientific rationale)
- Procedural knowledge
- Knowledge of task environment
Skills An ability or proficiency acquired through practice - Skills
- Skills development
- Competence
- Ability
- Interpersonal skills
- Practice
- Skill assessment
Social/Professional Role & Identity A coherent set of behaviours and displayed personal qualities of an individual in a social or work setting - Professional identity
- Professional role
- Social identity
- Identity
- Professional boundaries
- Professional confidence
- Group identity
- Leadership
- Organisational commitment
Beliefs about capabilities Acceptance of the truth, reality or validity about an ability, talent, or facility that a person can put to constructive use - Self-confidence
- Perceived competence
- Self-efficacy
- Perceived behavioural control
- Beliefs
- Self-esteem
- Empowerment
- Professional confidence
Optimism The confidence that things will happen for the best or that desired goals will be attained - Optimism
- Pessimism
- Unrealistic optimism
- Identity
Beliefs about consequences Acceptance of the truth, reality, or validity about outcomes of a behaviour in a given situation - Beliefs
- Outcome expectancies
- Characteristics of outcome expectancies
- Anticipated regret
- Consequents
Reinforcement Increasing the probability of a response by arranging a dependent relationship, or contingency, between the response and a given stimulus - Rewards (proximal/distal, valued/not valued, probable/improbable)
- Incentives
- Punishment
- Consequents
- Reinforcement
- Contingencies
- Sanctions
Intentions A conscious decision to perform a behavior or a resolve to act in a certain way - Stability of intentions
- Stages of change model
- Transtheoretical model and stages of change
Goals Mental representations of outcomes or end states that an individual wants to achieve - Goals (distal/proximal)
- Goal priority
- Goal/target setting
- Goals (autonomous/controlled)
- Action planning
- Implementation intention
Memory, attention, and decision processes The ability to retain information, focus selectively on aspects of the environment and choose between two or more alternatives - Memory
- Attention
- Attention control
- Decision making
- Cognitive overload/tiredness
Environmental context and resources Any circumstance of a person’s situation or environment that discourages or encourages the development of skills and abilities, independence, social competence, and adaptive behaviour - Environmental stressors
- Resources/material resources
- Organisational culture/climate
- Salient events/critical incidents
- Person × environment interaction
- Barriers and facilitators
Social influences Those interpersonal processes that can cause individuals to change their thoughts, feelings or behaviours - Social pressure
- Social norms
- Group conformity
- Social comparisons
- Group norms
- Social support
- Power
- Intergroup conflict
- Alienation
- Group identity
- Modelling
Emotion A complex reaction pattern, involving experiential, behavioural and physiological elements, by which the individual attempts to deal with a personally significant matter or event - Fear
- Anxiety
- Affect
- Stress
- Depression
- Positive/negative affect
- Burn-out
Behavioural regulation Anything aimed at managing or changing objectively observed or measured actions - Self-monitoring
- Breaking habit
- Action planning