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Table 4 Results related to medical and technical aspects of care, cross-tabulated by gestational age

From: Care quality following intrauterine death in Spanish hospitals: results from an online survey

   Gestational age (weeks)  
Total (n = 796) 16–19 (n = 128) 20–25 (n = 193) 26–33 (n = 151) ≥ 3 4 (n = 324)    
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) χ2, p* Cramér’s V
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal (total) 667 (83.4) 120 (93.8) 183 (94.8) 122 (80.8) 242 (74.7) 47.38, p < 0.001 .244
 Vaginal - induced 578 (72.6) 99 (77.3) 152 (78.8) 115 (76.2) 212 (65.4) 14.46, p = 0.002 .135
 Vaginal - instrumentalised 113 (14.2) 26 (20.5) 26 (13.5) 9 (6.0) 52 (16.1) 13.53, p = 0.004 .131
 Vaginal - natural 76 (9.5) 16 (12.5) 28 (14.5) 7 (4.6) 25 (7.7) 12.26, p = 0.007 .124
 Caesarean section (total) 118 (14.8) 0 (0.0) 9 (4.7) 29 (19.2) 80 (24.7) 65.34, p < 0.001 .286
  Planned caesarean 22 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 3 (1.6) 4 (2.6) 15 (4.6) **   
  Emergency caesarean 80 (10.1) 0 (0.0) 6 (3.1) 22 (14.6) 52 (16.0) **   
  Due to failed induction 16 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.0) 13 (4.0) **   
 Other 9 (1.1) 7 (5.5) 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) **   
 Not stated 2 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) **   
Accompaniment during the birth
 Accompanied during the birth (total)[1] 561 (70.7) 84 (66.1) 128 (66.3) 107 (70.9) 242 (74.9) 5.83, p = 0.120
  Vaginal births 534 (80.2) 82 (68.3) 126 (68.9) 103 (84.4) 223 (92.5) 49.89, p < 0.001 .274
  Caesarean births 25 (21.2) 0 (0.0) 2 (22.2) 4 (23.4) 19 (23.8) **   
 Partner not allowed to accompany (total)[2] 138 (17.3) 26 (20.3) 38 (19.7) 25 (16.6) 49 (15.1) 2.70, p = 0.439
  Vaginal births 80 (12.0) 24 (20.0) 35 (19.1) 11 (9.0) 10 (4.1) 31.30, p < 0.001 .217
  Caesarean births 54 (45.8) 0 (0.0) 3 (33.3) 14 (48.3) 37 (46.2) **   
Explanation/ offer of pathology studies***
 “No one” spoke about pathology 171 (21.5) 50 (39.1) 62 (32.1) 21 (13.9) 38 (11.7) 59.82, p < 0.001 .274
 Doctor spoke about pathology 524 (65.8) 72 (56.2) 117 (60.6) 107 (70.9) 228 (70.4) 12.22, p = 0.007 .124
 Nurse/ midwife spoke about pathology 120 (15.1) 6 (4.7) 16 (8.3) 28 (18.5) 70 (21.6) 29.94, p < 0.001 .194
 Other HP spoke about pathology 19 (2.4) 1 (0.8) 6 (3.1) 3 (2.0) 9 (2.8) **   
 Not stated 9 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) 7 (2.2) **   
Pathology studies conducted
 At least one pathology study/test conducted 667 (85.5) 89 (71.8) 155 (83.3) 134 (91.2) 289 (89.5) 27.48, p < 0.001 .188
 General autopsy 479 (61.4) 50 (40.3) 103 (55.4) 109 (74.1) 217 (67.2) 40.74, p < 0.001 .229
  Stillbirths 396 (66.8) 31 (41.3) 57 (66.3) 101 (79.5) 207 (67.9) 31.37, p < 0.001 .230
  Termination of pregnancy 104 (55.6) 30 (61.2) 54 (54.0) 12 (60.0) 8 (44.4) 1.80, p = 0.620
 Placental autopsy 299 (37.6) 27 (21.1) 66 (34.2) 72 (47.7) 134 (41.4) 24.31, p < 0.001 .175
 Not stated 16 (2.0) 4 (3.1) 7 (3.6) 4 (2.6) 1 (0.3) 8.44, p = 0.038 .103
  1. *Pearson’s Chi-squared, significance level set at p <0.05
  2. **Chi-squared not calculated due to minimum requirement of 5 cases per cell
  3. ***Multiple responses permitted except when response was ‘null’
  4. [1]There were two missing cases in the accompaniment variable
  5. [2]Other reasons for not being permitted accompaniment during the birth included: Under anaesthesia, surgery, emergency caesarean (22.1%), Respondent wanted to be alone or her partner didn’t want to enter (8.9%) and Other: partner didn’t arrive on time, single mother, etc. (8.5%)