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Table 3 Results by genus (study is included if it includes at least one strain of that genus) for primary and key secondary outcomes in systematic review of the use of probiotics and/or prebiotics during pregnancy

From: Pregnancy outcomes in women taking probiotics or prebiotics: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome Intervention Studies N I2 RR/MD (95% CI)
PTB < 34 Lactobacillus (& other) 5 1017 0% RR 1.03 (0.29–3.64)
  Bifidobacterium (& other) 3 377 0% RR 1.54 (0.27–8.73)
  Streptococcus (& other) 2 146 0% RR 1.60 (0.20–12.69)
PTB < 37 Lactobacillus (& other) 10 2328 0% RR 1.10 (0.72–1.68)
  Bifidobacterium (& other) 7 1479 0% RR 1.21 (0.75–1.96)
  Streptococcus (& other) 3 512 0% RR 1.81 (0.80–4.10)
Gestational age (weeks) Lactobacillus (& other) 8 1133 0% MD 0.07 weeks (-0.09–0.23)
  Bifidobacterium (& other) 3 365 0% MD 0.30 weeks (0.03–0.57)
  Streptococcus (& other) 1 66 MD 0.40 weeks (-0.10–0.90)
Birth weight (grams) Lactobacillus (& other) 10 1608 0% MD 10.66 g (-35.85–57.18)
  Bifidobacterium (& other) 5 840 0% MD 22.44 g (-40.58–85.46)
  Streptococcus (& other) 1 66 MD -65.00 g (-301.73–171.73)
SGA Lactobacillus (& other) 3 318 50% RR 1.03 (0.35–3.06)
  Bifidobacterium (& other) 1 66 RR 11.00 (0.63–191.27)
  Streptococcus (& other) 1 66 RR 11.00 (0.63–191.27)
LGA Lactobacillus (& other) 3 316 0% RR 0.96 (0.47–1.94)
  Bifidobacterium (& other) 1 66 RR 0.67 (0.12–3.73)
  Streptococcus (& other) 1 66 RR 0.67 (0.12–3.73)
GDM Lactobacillus (& other) 2 355 0% RR 1.25 (0.61–2.56)
  Bifidobacterium (& other) 1 219 RR 1.26 (0.56–2.83)
  Streptococcus (& other) 0 Not estimable
PPROM Lactobacillus (& other) 2 366 0% RR 1.37 (0.63–2.99)
  Bifidobacterium (& other) 2 366 0% RR 1.37 (0.63–2.99)
  Streptococcus (& other) 2 366 0% RR 1.37 (0.63–2.99)
  1. Abbreviations: GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, LGA large for gestational age, N, Number of women in the meta-analysis, PPROM Preterm premature rupture of the membranes, PTB preterm birth, SGA Small for gestational age
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