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Table 2 Specific maternal characteristics

From: Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

Characteristic Total
(N = 735)
Low wellbeinga
(n = 200)
High wellbeinga
(n = 535)
Lifestyle    
 Smoking behaviour, yes (n (%)) 122 (16.6) 37 (18.5) 85 (15.9)
 Any alcohol consumption, yes (n (%)) 43 (5.9) 12 (6.0) 31 (5.8)
 Sleep, hours per day (median (IQR), total = 734) 8.0 (7.0–8.5) 8.0 (7.0–9.0) 8.0 (7.0–8.0)
 Insufficient sleep, days per month (median (IQR, total = 722) 7.0 (3.0–15.0) 15.0 (5.0–20.0) 5.0 (2.0–15.0)
 Snoring, days per week (median (IQR, total = 714) 0.0 (0–2.0) 0.0 (0–3.0) 0.0 (0–2.0)
 PPAQ, MET-h·wk. −1 (median (IQR))    
  MVPA 70.2 (34.7–127.8) 74.7 (32.3–128.2) 69.0 (35.5–127.8)
  SB 42.0 (19.1–62.1) 36.8 (18.6–61.1) 43.2 (19.4–62.7)
Biological    
 First degree relative with diabetes, yes (n (%)) 168 (22.9) 48 (24.0) 120 (22.4)
 Chronic hypertension, yes (n (%), total = 730) 98 (13.3) 30 (15.0) 68 (12.7)
 Polycystic ovary syndrome, yes (n (%), total = 728) 73 (9.9) 24 (12.0) 49 (9.2)
 Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L (median (IQR), total = 727) 4.6 (4.3–4.8) 4.6 (4.3–4.8) 4.6 (4.3–4.8)
 Fasting plasma insulin, mmol/L (median (IQR), total = 720) 12.7 (9.8–17.5) 13.1 (10.1–17.5) 12.5 (9.5–17.4)
 HOMA-IR (median (IQR), total = 717) 2.6 (1.9–3.6) 2.7 (2.0–3.6) 2.6 (1.9–3.6)
 Systolic blood pressure (median (IQR), total = 733) 116 (109–123) 114 (107–121) 116 (110–124)
 Diastolic blood pressure (median (IQR), total = 733) 72 (67–79) 71 (67–77) 72 (67–79)
 Resting heart rate (median (IQR), total = 694) 79 (72–86) 79 (71–87) 79 (73–85)
Pregnancy-specific    
 Gestational week (median (IQR)) 15.1 (13.4–16.7) 14.9 (13.3–16.2) 15.3 (13.6–17.0)
 Number of own children (n (%), total = 734)    
  Zero 366 (49.8) 93 (46.5) 273 (51.0)
  One 256 (34.8) 73 (36.5) 183 (34.2)
  Two or more 112 (15.2) 34 (17.0) 78 (14.6)
 Pregnant before, yes (n (%)) 460 (62.6) 136 (68.0) 324 (60.6)
 Previous stillbirths/miscarriage, ≥ 1 (n (%), total = 445) 200 (27.2) 63 (31.5) 137 (25.6)
 Previous fetal macrosomia, yes (n (%), total = 453) 81 (11.0) 22 (11.0) 59 (11.0)
 Previous congenital malformation, yes (n (%), total = 454) 16 (2.2) 4 (2.0) 12 (2.2)
 Previous gestational diabetes, yes (n (%), total = 455) 36 (4.9) 12 (6.0) 24 (4.5)
 Pre to baseline weight gain, kg (median (IQR)) 1.7 (−0.4–4.0) 1.6 (−0.6–4.2) 1.7 (−0.3–4.0)
 Perceptions and attitudeb (median (IQR))    
  Attitude to current weight (total = 729) 16.0 (14.0–18.0) 17.0 (14.0–19.0) 16.0 (13.0–18.0)
  Self-efficacy (total = 730) 35.0 (30.0–41.0) 31.0 (27.0–38.0) 37.0 (31.0–41.0)
  Social support (total = 731) 16.0 (13.0–18.0) 14.0 (10.0–17.0) 16.0 (14.0–18.0)
  Outcome expectancy (total = 723) 52.0 (46.0–58.0) 52.0 (46.0–58.0) 52.0 (46.0–58.0)
 Cambridge worry scale (median (IQR))    
  Total 13 items (total = 720) 18.0 (12.0–26.0) 24.0 (16.0–32.0) 17.0 (12.0–24.0)
  Sociomedical (total = 731) 5.0 (2.0–8.0) 6.0 (2.0–10.0) 5.0 (2.0–8.0)
  Socioeconomic (total = 733) 4.0 (2.0–7.0) 6.0 (3.0–9.0) 4.0 (1.0–6.0)
  Health (total = 729) 8.0 (5.0–12.0) 10.0 (6.0–13.0) 8.0 (5.0–11.0)
Relationship (total = 729) 0.0 (0–2.0) 1.0 (0–3.0) 0.0 (0–1.0)
  1. PPAQ = pregnancy physical activity questionnaire; MET = metabolic equivalents; MVPA = moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; SB = sedentary behavior
  2. aBased on the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Values ≤50 were considered as low wellbeing (poor maternal mental health), values >50 as high wellbeing. bBased on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model [43]