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Table 2 PRES item means (SD), by country and type of antenatal care

From: Randomized controlled pilot of a group antenatal care model and the sociodemographic factors associated with pregnancy-related empowerment in sub-Saharan Africa

  Malawi Tanzania
Individual ANC Group ANC Individual ANC Group ANC
Provider Connectedness
 I can ask my midwife provider about my pregnancy 2.83 (0.5) 3.80 (0.4)* 3.19 (0.4) 3.30 (0.5)
 I have enough time with my midwife to discuss my pregnancy 2.60 (0.6) 3.69 (0.5)* 3.02 (0.5) 3.28 (0.5)*
 My midwife listens to me 2.54 (0.6) 3.71 (0.5)* 3.15 (0.4) 3.34 (0.5)*
 My midwife respects me 2.70 (0.5) 3.71 (0.5)* 3.15 (0.4) 3.34 (0.5)*
 I expect my midwife to respect my decisions about my pregnancy 2.67 (0.5) 3.71 (0.5)* 3.15 (0.4) 3.25 (0.5)
 My midwife respects my decision, even if it is different than their recommendation 2.58 (0.5) 3.61 (0.5)* 3.0 (0.7) 2.85 (0.8)
Skillful Decision-Making
 I take responsibility for the decisions I make about my pregnancy like eating healthy food 2.98 (0.4) 3.80 (0.4)* 2.46 (0.9) 2.57 (0.9)
 I can tell when I have made a good health choice 2.85 (0.4) 3.69 (0.5)* 3.21 (0.5) 3.21 (0.4)
 Since I began prenatal care, I have been making more decisions about my health 2.85 (0.5) 3.67 (0.5)* 3.21 (0.4) 3.26 (0.4)
Peer Connectedness
 Women need to share experiences with other women when they are pregnant 2.83 (0.7) 3.69 (0.5)* 3.23 (0.4) 3.28 (0.5)
 I share my feelings and experiences with other women 2.70 (0.6) 3.65 (0.5)* 3.15 (0.5) 3.23 (0.4)
Gaining Voice
 I know if I am gaining the right amount of weight during my pregnancy 2.40 (0.6) 3.67 (0.5)* 3.15 (0.5) 3.26 (0.4)
 I have a right to ask questions when I don’t understand something about my pregnancy 2.50 (0.7) 3.69 (0.5)* 3.27 (0.4) 3.32 (0.5)
 I am able to change things in my life that are not healthy for me 2.78 (0.5) 3.67 (0.5)* 3.19 (0.5) 3.26 (0.5)
 I am doing what I can to have a healthy baby 2.97 (0.5) 3.67 (0.5)* 3.23 (0.5) 3.30 (0.5)
 If something is going wrong in my pregnancy, I know who to talk to 2.97 (0.5) 3.69 (0.5)* 3.25 (0.4) 3.28 (0.5)
  1. *Significantly different at P < 0.05