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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Interventions to provide culturally-appropriate maternity care services: factors affecting implementation

Study Study Design Setting Description of Intervention Reported Outcomes of Interest
Bilenko et al., 2007 [14] Retrospective record review of ANC utilisation by pregnant women in two successive pregnancies, before and after the establishment of a local MCH clinic ISRAEL, Negev Desert A new maternal and child health clinic in desert areas for semi-nomadic Bedouin extended families living in tribal units, staffed by an Arabic-speaking Bedouin public health nurse ANC
Gabrysch et al., 2009 [5] Pre and post comparative study PERU, Ayacucho rural Santillana district A culturally-appropriate childbirth care model developed with Quechua communities and health professionals. Key features included a rope and bench for vertical delivery position, inclusion of family and TBAs, use of the Quechua language and health professionals that were respectful of culture Skilled birth attendant, Facility birth
Jan et al., 2004 [15] One qualitative component and two quantitative components (one economic and one that appeared similar to a retrospective cohort study) AUSTRALIA, western Sydney Daruk Aboriginal Medical Service, a community-controlled health service with a midwifery programme staffed by a team including an Aboriginal health worker. Features included regular ANC, transportation and home visits. Cultural awareness sessions were also provided for hospital staff ANC
Jewell et al., 2000 [16] Retrospective comparison of birth certificate data of infants born to project mothers and those born to non-project mothers USA, Indiana Minority health coalitions developed projects to increase access to early ANC for minority women through community outreach and addressing cultural factors that affect use of care. Strategies included use of minority professional and paraprofessional staff, social support, advocacy, and referrals for health education and transportation ANC
Julnes, 1994 [17] Retrospective comparison of women in the programme area in the intervention group with women who attended a clinic-based, multi-disciplinary programme and women who had no ANC, using a database constructed from monthly reports of births in the programme area, based on birth certificate information USA, Norfolk, Virginia Norfolk Resource Mothers Program - a community outreach programme using resource mothers or lay people, often sharing cultural background with the adolescents, to assist with non-medical dimensions of pregnancy and childcare, including getting ANC and acting as a liaison between the adolescents and public agencies ANC
Kildea et al., 2012 [1] A triangulation mixed method approach including mother and infant audit data, and routinely collected data from hospital databases AUSTRALIA Murri clinic – an antenatal clinic established in a tertiary hospital to provide antenatal services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Services include an Indigenous midwife and Indigenous liaison officers who helped families feel welcome, provided support for women in rural and remote areas and served as cultural brokers ANC
Marsiglia et al., 2010 [18] Randomised controlled trial USA, Phoenix, Arizona The Familias Sanas intervention was designed to bridge the cultural gap between Latinas and the health care system, and to reinforce among pregnant Latinas the importance of the postpartum visit. The intervention used bilingual, bicultural Prenatal Partners who served as cultural brokers. They showed participants how to navigate the health system and helped them improve communication with health care providers. Postpartum care
Mason, 1990 [19] Case-control UK, Leicestershire, England The Asian Mother and Baby Campaign was directed towards Asian women. Link workers, able to speak fluent English and at least one Asian language, worked alongside health professionals in the hospital and community setting as facilitators and interpreters while fulfilling an educative role. ANC
McQuestion and Velazquez, 2006 [20] An endline survey with mothers in the catchment areas of 29 treatment and 29 matched control facilities providing emergency obstetric care (EmOC). The probability of birth at the nearest public EmOC facility was modelled, conditional on whether the mother’s area participated in the programme, among other factors. PERU, communities in high-risk distritos in 12 of 25 departmentos Proyeto 2000 – a project to make emergency obstetric care services culturally acceptable, woman-friendly, and high-quality. Local birthing practices were incorporated into clinical protocols (specific features were not described). Qualitative data collected on mothers’ perceptions and preferences also informed a multimedia Safe Motherhood campaign; TBAs were trained; and facility staff engaged new community health committees. Facility birth
Nel et al., 2003 [21] Descriptive study (pre-post comparison) AUSTRALIA, remote northern and western Queensland Following consultations with health providers and Aboriginal communities, the programme included features such as a separate Indigenous medical centre managed by a community board and staffed by Indigenous people, home visits, provision of transportation and the involvement of family in ongoing care ANC
NSW Health, 2005 [22] Comparative study AUSTRALIA, New South Wales The NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Strategy established community midwife and Aboriginal health worker teams to provide targeted, community-based, culturally-appropriate services for Aboriginal women in each area. State-wide training was introduced for these staff. Community development programmes were included to varying degrees across areas. ANC
Panaretto et al., 2005 [23] Prospective cohort study with a historical control group and a contemporary control group AUSTRALIA, Townsville, north Queensland Collaboration with Indigenous communities produced an integrated model of antenatal shared care, delivered from the community-controlled Townsville Aboriginal and Islander Health Service. Strategies included the use of Aboriginal health workers, continuity of care, and a family-friendly environment ANC, Facility birth
Panaretto et al., 2007 [24] Prospective cohort study of women attending the trial maternal child health programme compared with a historical control group AUSTRALIA, Townsville, north Queensland See Panaretto et al., 2005 (above) ANC
Parsons et al., 1992 [25] Retrospective study with control group UK, Hackney, East London The Multi-Ethnic Women’s Health Project – a health advocacy programme introduced at a hospital to meet the needs of non-English speaking women. Health advocates interpreted and mediated between service users and professionals to ensure an informed choice of health care ANC, Care-seeking for complications or illness in women and newborns
Thompson et al., 1998 [26] Retrospective study with control group USA, rural Oregon The Rural Oregon Minority Prenatal Program blended culturally-appropriate care with outreach by using bilingual and bicultural workers with strong links to their Mexican heritage, nursing case management and home visitation to facilitate access to ANC and community services ANC, Care-seeking for complications or illness in women and newborns