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Table 1 Table of characteristics of included studies

From: Demand-side financing for maternal and newborn health: what do we know about factors that affect implementation of cash transfers and voucher programmes?

Study Study design Setting Description of intervention Recommendation Outcomes of interest reported
Conditional cash transfers
Oportunidades, Mexico
 Barber and Gertler (2008) Cross-sectional Rural communities, Mexico Oportunidades (conditional cash transfers)The programme was launched in 1997 as PROGRESA and later renamed Oportunidades. Monthly cash transfers are paid directly to mothers and are conditional on meeting health and education requirements. These included regular antenatal visits for pregnant women and attendance at health education meetings. Conditional cash transfers Perinatal morbidity, ANC
 Barber and Gertler (2009) Cross-sectional Rural communities, Mexico Conditional cash transfers QoC
 Barber (2010) Cross-sectional Rural communities, Mexico Conditional cash transfers C/I
 Barham (2011) Retrospective area study Rural communities, Mexico Programme less effective in areas that do not meet minimum level of sanitation Infant mortality, NM
 Hernandez Prado et al. (2004) Retrospective area study Rural, semi-urban and urban areas, Mexico Conditional cash transfers MM, infant mortality
 Hernandez Prado et al. (2004) Repeat cross-sectional Rural, semi-urban and urban areas, Mexico Conditional cash transfers ANC, SBA, C/I, QoC, infant morbidity
 Sosa-Rubai et al. (2011) Cross-sectional Rural communities, Mexico Conditional cash transfers, but need better targeting to marginalised groups ANC
 Urquieta et al. (2009) Repeat cross-sectional Rural communities, Mexico Conditional cash transfers, but need to include household members who influence decision-making on place of birth SBA
Program Keluarga Harapan, Indonesia
 Alatas et al. (2011) Repeat cross-sectional Rural and urban districts in Indonesia Program Keluarga Harapan (conditional cash transfers)The programme was introduced in 2007 and was targeted to five provinces. It was piloted in sub-districts that were felt had sufficient supply-side capacity to meet additional demand for services. Eligible households included those with pregnant or lactating women and women were expected to attend ANC, use a SBA and receive PN/PP. A cash transfer is paid quarterly to the women through a nearby post office. Facilitators are expected to verify that conditionalities are met. Conditional cash transfers, but relax conditionalities in areas with weaker health systems ANC, SBA, FB, PN, NM, infant mortality
 Febriany et al. (2011) Qualitative – interviews and focus groups 12 villages (mixed urban and rural) in 2 provinces, Indonesia Conditional cash transfers, but need to reduce gaps in service provision and overcome social, economic and geographical barriers Implementation
 Triyana (2012) Repeat cross-sectional Rural and urban areas in Indonesia Conditional cash transfers MM, NM, infant mortality, SBA, QoC
Plan de Atención Nacional a la Emergencia Social (PANES), Uruguay
 Amarante et al. (2011) Repeat cross-sectional Uruguay Plan de Atención Nacional a la Emergencia Social (PANES) (conditional cash transfers)Between April 2005 and December 2007, Plan de Atención Nacional a la Emergencia Social was implemented by the Uruguayan government. Monthly payments were made to eligible households. In homes with a pregnant woman, payments were conditional on her attendance at ANC. Conditional cash transfers Perinatal morbidity, maternal morbidity, ANC, SBA
Muthulakshmi Reddy Maternity Benefit Scheme, India
 Bala-subramanian and Ravindran (2012) Cross-sectional Tamil Nadu, India Muthulakshmi Reddy Maternity Benefit Scheme (conditional cash transfers)The programme was launched in Tamil Nadu, India, in 1987 and provided unconditional payments (in two instalments) to pregnant women. Payments were increased in size over time and were made conditional on antenatal care attendance in 2012. The eligibility of women is determined by a village health nurse and includes those who meet criteria for poverty and who had previously had no more than two live births. Conditional cash transfers, but shorter application process needed FB
 Public Health Resource Network (2010) Qualitative – in-depth interviews 2 districts in Tamil Nadu, India Conditional cash transfers, but with universal eligibility, timely payments, assistance from community-based workers, and supply-side investment so that maternity care services are universally available and are free Implementation
Comunidades Solidarias Rurales, El Salvador
 De Brauw et al. (2011) Repeat cross-sectional Rural communities, El Salvador Comunidades Solidarias Rurales (conditional cash transfers)The programme was introduced in 2005 and eligible households are identified from census data. Pregnant woman in eligible households must attend ANC and monthly local health education meetings are held. The programme coincided with health system strengthening programmes introduced by the government. Conditional cash transfers, but should be conditional on ANC during first trimester, SBA and PNC ANC, FB, SBA, PN
Bolsa Familia, Brazil
 Guanais (2013) Retrospective area study Brazil Bolsa Familia (conditional cash transfers)Since 2003 Brazil has paid monthly cash transfers to eligible households that meet conditionalities including that pregnant women attend ANC. Payments are made to women and are credited to electronic benefit cards. Conditional cash transfers, but should be accompanied by supply-side interventions Post-neonatal mortality
 Shei (2013) Retrospective area study Brazil Conditional cash transfer effective but need to meet increased demand for services and need to target vulnerable groups NM, post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality
Mi Familia Progresa, Guatemala
 Gutierrez et al. (2011) Repeat cross-sectional Guatemala Mi Familia Progresa (conditional cash transfers)Introduced by the Guatemalan government in 2008, Mi Familia Progresa payments are made to eligible households with a pregnant woman and are conditional on ANC attendance. Conditional cash transfers ANC, FB, PM
Programa de Asignación Familia, Honduras
 Morris et al. (2004) Repeat cross-sectional Rural municipalities, Honduras Programa de Asignación Familia (conditional cash transfers)Vouchers with a cash value were distributed to eligible households on a regular basis. Distribution to households with a pregnant woman was conditional on her ANC attendance. Conditional cash transfers ANC, PN
Unconditional cash transfers
Child Grant Programme, Zambia
  Handa et al. (2015) Repeat cross-sectional Three rural districts in Zambia Child Grant Programme (conditional cash transfers)Launched in 2010, the programme operates in three districts with the highest rates of mortality and morbidity. Eligibility is universal within programme areas as long as there is a young child in the household. Payments are made directly to mothers. Unconditional cash transfers, but need access to maternity services and may need complimentary short-term payments that are conditional on uptake of maternity care services ANC, QoC, SBA
Short term cash payments to offset costs of access
Janani Suraksha Yojana, India
  Amudhan et al. (2013) Quasi-experimental pre- and post- comparative with control groups Rural area in Haryana, India Janani Suraksha Yojana (payments to offset costs of access)The programme was launched in 2005 as part of the National Rural Health Mission. A cadre of community-based workers (accredited social health activists) were created to promote the programme in communities. Women from low-income households could receive a cash payment if they give birth in a health facility (usually government, although some states also accredited private facilities). Accredited social health activists are salaried and expected to encourage ANC, facility-based births and PN/PP. They are eligible to receive a payment for accompanying a woman to a health facility to give birth. Short-term payments, but followed by supply-side strengthening FB
  Carvalho et al. (2014) Cross-sectional National sample of districts (mixed urban and rural), India Short-term payments, but need appropriate systems for payments PN, PP
  Chaturvedi and Randive (2009) Qualitative – semi-structured interviews and focus groups Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra, India Short-term payments, but ensure that private service providers are monitored and regulated Implementation
  Chaturvedi and Randive (2011) Qualitative – semi-structured interviews and focus groups   Ensure sufficient government capacity to design and manage public-private partnerships Implementation
  Chaturvedi et al. (2015a) Qualitative – observations and interviews 11 health facilities in Madhya Pradesh Improve quality of care before introducing short-term payment programmes Implementation
  Chaturvedi et al. (2015b) Qualitative – record reviews and interviews 73 health facilities in Madhya Pradesh Train and support staff to use partographs Implementation
  Coffey (2014) Qualitative – interviews and observations Three villages in a rural district in Uttar Pradesh Short-term payments, but need to incentivise health outcomes Implementation
  Dasgupta (2007) Qualitative – maternal death investigations 7 districts in Uttar Pradesh, India Invest in supply-side capacity, promote awareness of programme benefits, and develop systems to track each pregnancy Implementation
  Devadasan et al. (2008) Qualitative - interviews One district in each of four states, India Short-term payments, but need to ensure quality of care, use streamlined processes for distribution of payments and monitor the programme Implementation
  Gopalan et al. (2012) Qualitative – interviews and focus groups Three districts in Orissa Short-term payments, but with greater protection for families from costs of care Implementation
  Gupta (2007) Qualitative – interviews and focus groups Nalanda and West Champaran (rural) districts in Bihar, India No recommendations made Implementation
  Hangmi and Kuki (2009) Qualitative – interviews and focus groups Churachandpur (rural) district in Manipur, India Short-term payments, but need to invest in capacity of service providers, ensure fair selection of community-based workers, and streamline cash payments Implementation
  Human Rights Watch (2009) Qualitative – individual and group interviews Rural areas in Uttar Pradesh, India Develop monitoring systems Implementation
  Joshi and Sivaram (2014) Repeat cross-sectional National sample of districts (mixed urban and rural), India Concurrent supply-side strengthening and flexibility in guidelines ANC, SBA, PN
  Khan et al. (2010) Qualitative – interviews 24 villages in Uttar Pradesh (rural), India Short-term payments, but with adequate training and incentives for community-based workers, and inclusion of private service providers Implementation
  Krishna and Ananthpur (2011) Qualitative – interviews and focus groups Gulbarga and Raichur (rural) districts in Karnataka, India No recommendations made Implementation
  Kumar et al. (2009) Qualitative – focus groups Una (predominantly rural) district in Himachal Pradesh, India Short-term payments, but with streamlined distribution of cash payments and ensure community-based workers appropriately trained and that posts are filled Implementation
  Lim et al. (2010) Repeat cross-sectional National sample of districts (mixed urban and rural), India Short-term payments, but need improved targeting and quality of care ANC, FB, SBA, PM, NM
  Lodh et al. (2009) Qualitative – interviews and focus groups Muzaffarpur district (predominantly rural) in Bihar, India Short-term payments, but with streamlined distribution of cash payments Implementation
  Mazumdar et al. (2012) Repeat cross-sectional National sample of districts (mixed urban and rural), India Short-term payments, but caution regarding unintended consequences ANC, FB, SBA, C/I, NM
  Nandan et al. (2008) Qualitative – semi-structured and in-depth interviews and focus groups 3 districts in Orissa (predominantly rural), India Short-term payments using streamlined payment systems, inclusion of private service providers, supply-side investment and awareness generation Implementation
  Nandan et al. (2008) Qualitative – semi-structured and in-depth interviews and focus groups 3 districts in Orissa, India Short-term payments using streamlined payment systems, supply-side investment and awareness generation Implementation
  Purohit et al. (2014) Cross-sectional Four districts in Rajasthan, India Short-term payments ANC, PN, QoC
  Rai et al. (2012) Qualitative – in-depth interviews and focus groups 12 villages in Jharkhand, India Short-term payments alongside investment in supply-side capacity Implementation
  Randive et al. (2013) Repeat cross-sectional 284 districts across nine Indian states Short-term payments, but need to improve quality of care to impact on MM FB
  Santhya et al. (2011a) Repeat cross-sectional Alwar and Jodhpur districts (mixed rural and urban), India Short-term payments, but improve awareness among communties, quality of services and administrative capacity ANC, FB, SBA, PP, QoC, oxytocin
  Santhya et al. (2011b) Qualitative – in-depth interviews Alwar and Jodhpur districts in Rajasthan, India Short-term payments with trained community-based workers to raise awareness in communities Implementation
  Singh and Chaturvedi (2007) Qualitative – focus groups and interviews Five districts in Uttar Pradesh and three districts in Uttarakhand, India Short-term payments using streamlined systems, inclusion of postpartum care and removal of formal and informal user fees Implementation
  Sri et al. (2012) Qualitative – maternal death reviews Barwani district, Uttar Pradesh, India Investments must be made in supply-side strengthening and ensuring quality of care before short-term payments are considered Implementation
  Uttekar et al. (2007a) Qualitative - interviews 3 districts in Himachal Pradesh, India Short-term payments, but need to ensure quality of care by investing in supply-side capacity, use streamlined payments and raise awareness among hard-to-reach communities Implementation
  Uttekar et al. (2007b) Qualitative - interviews 3 districts in West Bengal, India Short-term payments, but need to ensure quality of care by investing in supply-side capacity, use streamlined payments and raise awareness among hard-to-reach communities Implementation
  Uttekar et al. (2007c) Qualitative - interviews 3 districts in Orissa, India Short-term payments, but need to ensure quality of care by investing in supply-side capacity, use streamlined payments and raise awareness among hard-to-reach communities Implementation
  Uttekar et al. (2007d) Qualitative - interviews 3 districts in Rajasthan, India Short-term payments, but need to ensure quality of care by investing in supply-side capacity, use streamlined payments and raise awareness among hard-to-reach communities Implementation
  Uttekar et al. (2007e) Qualitative - interviews 3 districts in Assam, India Short-term payments, but need to ensure quality of care by investing in supply-side capacity, use streamlined payments and raise awareness among hard-to-reach communities Implementation
  Uttekar et al. (2008a) Qualitative - interviews 3 districts in Uttar Pradesh, India Short-term payments, but need to ensure quality of care by investing in supply-side capacity, use streamlined payments and raise awareness among hard-to-reach communities Implementation
  Uttekar et al. (2008b) Qualitative - interviews 3 districts in Bihar, India Short-term payments, but need to ensure quality of care by investing in supply-side capacity, use streamlined payments and raise awareness among hard-to-reach communities Implementation
  Vora et al. (2012) Cross-sectional Rural areas in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, India Short-term payments, but should expand availability of health facilities, develop referral networks, include public and/or private facilities depending on local health system, promote awareness generation, and divide payments across maternity care services to incentivise multiple services. ANC, FB, C/I
CHIMACA project, China
 Hemminki et al. (2013) Cross-sectional One county in Anhui province, China CHIMACA project (payments to offset costs of access)Women could claim a small cash payment from a health centre if they attended ANC between 2007 and 2009. The size of the payment was increased with the number of ANC visits. Village family planning workers distributed leaflets in communities to advertise the programme and midwives distributed the leaflets to women attending ANC. Short-term payments, but need payments that are appropriately sized and relatively easy to obtain ANC, C/I, PN, QoC
SURE-P, Nigeria
 Okoli et al. (2014) Retrospective area study Nine states, Nigeria SURE-P (short term payments to offset costs of access)Cash payments were made to women who attended specific maternity care services (ANC, childbirth and PN/PP). Eligibilty was geographic and was based on the selection of health facilities participating in the wider SURE-P health programme. If a woman was referred to a higher level hospital, the hospital received a payment. Short-term payments, but need to improve retention of programme recipients throughout pregnancy ANC, SBA
Safe Delivery Incentive Programme, Nepal
 Powell-Jackson et al. (2009) Retrospective area study Makwanpur district (rural), Nepal Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (payments to offset costs of access)The programme was launched in 2005 and provides a cash payment to women who give birth in a health facility, and to a health worker who attends her birth (either at home or in a health facility). Payments were initially only available to women who have had two or fewer previous live births, but this condition was later removed. The programme was initially limited to government health facilities but later expanded to include the private sector. Short-term payments, but need to improve quality of care to impact on NM and need to ensure good communication to communities ANC, FB, SBA, C/I, NM
 Powell-Jackson et al. (2009) Qualitative – interviews and focus groups 10 districts, Nepal Attention to implementation challenges in countries with poor capacity to administer programmes and provide services, and careful planning Implementation
 Powell-Jackson and Hanson (2012) Cross-sectional National sample of districts (mixed urban and rural), India Short-term payments, but need effective implementation SBA, FB, C/I
Vouchers for maternity care services
Pilot programmes, Pakistan
  Agha (2011a) Repeat cross-sectional Dera Ghazi Khan City (urban), Pakistan Pilot voucher scheme (vouchers for maternal health services)12 month programme in which vouchers were sold to eligible families and local officials verified eligibility. Vouchers could be exchanged at participating Greenstar facilities for ANC, childbirth (including caesarean section if needed), PP and PN. Providers were reimbursed for each voucher accepted. Vouchers for maternity care services ANC, FB, PN
  Agha (2011b) Repeat cross-sectional Jhang district (rural), Pakistan Vouchers for maternity care services ANC, FB, PN
Maternal Health Voucher Scheme, Bangladesh
  Ahmed and Khan (2011) Cross-sectional Sarishabari district (predominantly rural), Bangladesh Maternal Health Voucher Scheme (vouchers for maternal health services) Since 2007 poor pregnant women received vouchers (some districts had universal distribution, some had targeted distribution) entitling them to free maternity care services (ANC, childbirth, PN/PP), transport subsidies, a cash incentive for delivery with a qualified provider (at home or in a designated facility) and a gift box. Providers received incentives to distribute vouchers and provide services that were covered by the vouchers. Vouchers for maternity care services ANC, FB, SBA, PN
  Ahmed and Khan (2011) Qualitative – semi-structured interviews Sarishabari district (predominantly rural), Bangladesh Vouchers for maternity care services, but with significant expansion of service delivery capacity of health facilities Implementation
  Hatt et al. (2010) Cross-sectional Early implementation subdistricts (mainly rural), Bangladesh Vouchers for maternity care services ANC, FB, C/I, PN
Qualitative – interviews and focus groups Early implementation subdistricts (mainly rural), Bangladesh Vouchers for maternity care services Implementation
  Koehlmoos et al. (2008) Qualitative – structured and in-depth interviews and focus groups   Vouchers for maternity care services, but with investment in physical infrastructure at government facilities, appropriate human resources, and attention to incentives to conduct caesarean sections Implementation
  Nguyen et al. (2012) Cross-sectional Early implementation subdistricts (mainly rural), Bangladesh Vouchers for maternity care services as part of a wider initiative that includes supply-side strengthening ANC, FB, SBA, C/I, PN
  Reproductive Health Vouchers Evaluation Team (2011) Qualitative - interviews 22 sub-districts, Bangladesh Vouchers for maternity care services Implementation
Pilot voucher programme, Bangladesh
  Rob et al. (2009) Repeat cross-sectional Habiganj district (rural), Bangladesh Pilot voucher scheme (vouchers for maternal health services)12 month programme in which fieldworkers identified a total of eligible women who were then validated as “poor” by a community support group Women could use vouchers for ANC, childbirth, PN and PP. Providers were reimbursed for vouchers accepted. Service providers and fieldworkers were trained and strengthened health facilities for providing ANC, delivery, and PNC services. Vouchers for maternity care services ANC, FB, SBA, PN
Qualitative – semi-structured interviews Habiganj district (rural), Bangladesh Vouchers for maternity care services Implementation
Makerere University Voucher Scheme, Uganda
  Alfonso et al. (2015) Retrospective area study Kamuli and Pallisa districts, Uganda Makerere University Voucher Scheme (vouchers for maternal health services)Between June 2010 and May 2011, vouchers were distributed to women in two selected areas of two Ugandan districts during ANC visits. Vouchers could be exchanged at public facilities or participating private facilities for intrapartum care, transport to and from the hospital, and for PN/PP in case of complications. Transport vouchers’ reimbursement covered the cost of the average distance in the treatment areas, and health facilities were reimbursed for services provided. Vouchers for maternity care services FB
  Pariyo et al. (2011) Qualitative – focus groups Kamuli district, Uganda Vouchers for maternity care services, but with inclusion of transport providers Implementation
HealthyBaby vouchers, Uganda
  Okal et al. (2013) Qualitative - interviews 7 districts, Uganda HealthyBaby vouchers (vouchers for maternal health services)Since 2008 vouchers for maternity care services have been sold to eligible women in 20 districts. Vouchers can be exchanged at accredited private providers for ANC, childbirth, PN. Community-based voucher distributors are responsible for targeting poor pregnant women using district-customized poverty grading tool. Vouchers for maternity care services, but with public facilities included, greater awareness raising in communities and support for policy champions Implementation
  Reproductive Health Vouchers Evaluation Team (2012) Repeat cross-sectional 6 districts, Uganda Vouchers for maternity care services ANC, FB, PN
Qualitative - interviews 30 health facilities, Uganda Vouchers for maternity care services Implementation
Vouchers for Health, Kenya
  Abuya et al. (2012) Qualitative – in-depth interviews Three districts and two urban slums Vouchers for Health (vouchers for maternal health services)Since 2006 vouchers have been sold to eligible women in three districts and two informal settlements in Kenya. Vouchers can be exchanged for ANC, childbirth (including caesarean section if needed) and PN. A facility was accredited if it met criteria set by the public authorities in terms of staffing and quality of care. Vouchers for maternity care services, with strong partnerships between public and private sectors and leading role for government Implementation
  Amendah et al. (2013) Repeat cross-sectional Two urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya Vouchers for maternity care services FB for subsequent pregnancy
  Arur et al. (2009) Qualitative – semi-structured interviews Kenya Vouchers for maternity care services if financial issues are the main barrier to care-seeking Implementation
  Bellows et al. (2012) Repeat cross-sectional Informal settlements in Nairobi (urban), Kenya Vouchers for maternity care services ANC, FB, SBA
  Njuki et al. (2013) Qualitative – structured interviews and focus groups Three districts in Kenya Vouchers for maternity care services, but with adequate information and availability of voucher distributors Implementation
  Njuki et al. (2015) Qualitative – in-depth interviews Three districts in Kenya Vouchers for maternity care services, but greater awareness of eligibility criteria and entitlements, and greater flexibility for public facilities to use income from vouchers Implementation
  Obare et al. (2012) Cross-sectional Six districts (all mixed urban and rural), Kenya Vouchers for maternity care services ANC, FB, SBA, PN
  Obare et al. (2014) Repeat cross-sectional Six districts (all mixed urban and rural), Kenya Vouchers for maternity care services, but transport costs should be included FB
  Reproductive Health Vouchers Evaluation Team (2011) Qualitative - interviews 6 rural districts and 2 informal settlements, Kenya Vouchers for maternity care services with awareness generation, monitoring of quality of care, and adequate provisions to overcome geographical (transports) issues Implementation
  Watt et al. (2015) Repeat cross-sectional Six districts (all mixed urban and rural), Kenya Vouchers for maternity care services, and need to include PP before discharge from hospital within hospital agreements QoC
Chiranjeevi Yojana, India
  Bhat et al. (2009) Cross-sectional Dahod district (mixed urban and rural), India Chiranjeevi Scheme (vouchers for maternal health services)The programme was introduced in five districts in Gujarat, India, in 2005. Women with documentation that indicate eligibility can receive free maternity care services at participating private facilities. Facilities are reimbursed for every 100 women who they provide care to. Vouchers for maternity care services PN
  De Costa et al. (2014) Retrospective area study Gujarat, India Further research needed FB
  Ganguly et al. (2014) Qualitative – interviews Two districts in Gujarat, India Vouchers for maternity care services, but with greater attention to developing trust between service providers and communities Implementation
  Jega (2007) Qualitative – interviews 2 districts in Gujarat (mixed urban and rural), India Vouchers for maternity care services, but with antenatal and postnatal care included, supply-side investment (to establish blood banks) and formal monitoring systems Implementation
  Mohanan et al. (2014) Cross-sectional Gujarat, India Further research needed ANC, FB, PN
Voucher programme, Cambodia
  Ir et al. (2010) Qualitative – in-depth interviews and focus groups 3 districts in Kampong province, Cambodia Voucher programme (vouchers for maternal health services)The programme was implemented in 22 districts between 2007 and 2010. Voucher distribution was universal in 14 districts and targeted in 8 districts. Eligible women were identified local volunteers and could use vouchers for free ANC, childbirth and PN/PP at public health facilities. Health centres were reimbursed for vouchers. Vouchers for maternity care services alongside interventions to promote quality of care and to overcome non-financial barriers to demand Implementation
  Van de Poel et al. (2014) Cross-sectional Nationally representative sample, Cambodia Vouchers for maternity care services, but universal distribution may be more effective than targeting ANC, FB, C/I, PN
Vouchers for merit goods
Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, Tanzania
  Hanson et al. (2009) Repeat cross-sectional 21 districts (mixed urban and rural), Tanzania Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme (vouchers for merit goods)Women attending ANC were given a voucher that entitled them to a discounted insecticide-treated net (of any size) from an approved supplier. The programme began in 2004 and expanded globally over subsequent years. Vouchers for merit goods Ownership and use of insecticide-treated net
  Koenker et al. (2013) Qualitative – meetings, site visits and mathematical modelling Five areas in Tanzania Vouchers for merit goods, with voucher distribution in schools and at health clinics Implementation
  Mubyazi et al. (2010) Qualitative – interviews and focus groups Mkuranga and Mufindi districts (rural), Tanzania No recommendation made Implementation
  1. ANC denotes antenatal care, SBA skilled birth attendance, FB births attended in healthcare facilities, PN postnatal care, PP postpartum care, C/I care-seeking for complications or illness in women and newborns, QoC quality of care, MM maternal mortality, PM perinatal mortality and NM neonatal mortality