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Table 1 Frequency of neonatal outcomes according to selected maternal traits. Italy, Lombardy Region, 2005–2010

From: Mother’s education and the risk of several neonatal outcomes: an evidence from an Italian population-based study

  All women Preterm birth Low birth weight Small for Gestational Age Low Apgar score Congenital Anomalies Cerebral distress Respiratory distress
(N = 383,103) (N = 20,294) (N = 19,588) (N = 29,800) (N = 3180) (N = 18,997) (N = 996) (N = 15,539)
Maternal trait % % % % % % % %
Educationa
 Low 121,910 5.8% 5.6% 8.1% 0.9% 4.9% 0.3% 5.4%
 Intermediate 173,926 5.2% 5.1% 7.7% 0.8% 4.8% 0.3% 5.0%
 High 87,267 4.7% 4.6% 7.3% 0.7% 5.2% 0.2% 4.7%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0466 0.0044 0.0444 <.0001
Maternal birthplace
 Italian-born 288,093 5.2% 4.9% 8.1% 0.8% 4.9% 0.2% 4.9%
 Foreign-born 95,010 5.6% 5.2% 6.8% 0.9% 4.9% 0.3% 5.6%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 0.0009 <0.0001 0.0001 0.1617 0.0200 <.0001
Age at delivery
 ≤ 25 years 49,803 4.9% 4.9% 8.4% 0.9% 4.8% 0.2% 5.2%
 26–35 years 244,037 5.0% 4.9% 7.8% 0.8% 4.8% 0.3% 4.9%
 ≥ 35 years 89,263 6.2% 5.8% 7.5% 0.9% 5.5% 0.2% 5.4%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 <0.0001 0.1739 0.0009 <.0001 0.3189 <.0001
Marital status
 Married 294,606 5.2% 4.9% 7.4% 0.8% 4.9% 0.3% 4.9%
 Unmarried 88,497 5.8% 5.9% 9.1% 0.9% 5.1% 0.3% 5.6%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0003 0.0245 0.7656 <.0001
Employment
 Employed 270,088 5.2% 5.1% 7.9% 0.8% 5.0% 0.2% 5.0%
 Unemployed 113,015 5.4% 5.1% 7.5% 0.9% 4.8% 0.3% 5.2%
   p-valueb   0.0170 0.3370 0.0003 0.1516 0.0691 0.0454 0.0068
Parity
 Nulliparous 211,090 5.7% 6.0% 9.7% 0.9% 5.4% 0.3% 5.9%
 Multiparous 172,013 4.8% 3.9% 5.5% 0.7% 4.5% 0.2% 4.0%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Previous spontaneous abortions
 No 320,274 5.1% 5.0% 7.9% 0.8% 4.9% 0.3% 5.1%
 Yes 62,829 6.1% 5.6% 7.0% 0.9% 5.2% 0.3% 4.9%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0689 0.0008 0.5183 0.0223
Diabetes
 No 371,227 5.2% 5.1% 7.8% 0.8% 4.9% 0.3% 5.0%
 Yes 11,915 9.3% 5.8% 6.1% 1.4% 6.5% 0.4% 6.8%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 0.0007 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0019 <.0001
Hypertension
 No 370,077 5.0% 4.8% 7.6% 0.8% 4.9% 0.3% 5.0%
 Yes 13,026 12.9% 14.6% 12.8% 1.4% 5.9% 0.3% 6.9%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.7711 <.0001
Dyslipidaemia
 No 382,202 5.3% 5.1% 7.8% 0.8% 4.9% 0.3% 5.1%
 Yes 901 9.7% 6.9% 6.7% 0.9% 5.5% 0.5% 6.7%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 0.0158 0.2091 0.8481 0.4135 0.0817 0.0332
Preeclampsia
 No 373,909 4.8% 4.6% 7.5% 0.8% 4.9% 0.3% 4.9%
 Yes 9194 26.0% 27.5% 17.7% 2.2% 7.9% 0.4% 11.5%
   p-valueb   <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0158 <.0001
  1. aYears of formal education completed categorized as ≤8 years (low), from 9 to 13 years (intermediate), and ≥14 years (high)
  2. bAccording to chi-square test or its version for the trend (education and age at delivery)